Net energy

Factors affecting net energy values of diets fed to group housed and ad libitum fed growing pigs

Stein, Hans H., Cristhiam J. Munoz, and Su A Lee. 2023. Factors affecting net energy values of diets fed to group housed and ad libitum fed growing pigs. XXXVIII Curso de especializacion FEDNA. Pag 213 - 223. Link to full text.

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Interactive Effects of Pelleting and Particle Size Reduction of Corn on net Energy and Digestibility of Nutrients in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to Group-Housed Pigs

Lee, Su A., Diego A. Rodriguez, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Interactive Effects of Pelleting and Particle Size Reduction of Corn on net Energy and Digestibility of Nutrients in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to Group-Housed Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, Pages 185–186, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.204. Link to abstract.

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Concentration of Net Energy in Corn without or with Microbial Phytase Fed to Group-Housed Pigs

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Concentration of Net Energy in Corn without or with Microbial Phytase Fed to Group-Housed Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, Pages 151–152, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.169. Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of metabolizable energy and net energy varies among sources of bakery meal when fed to growing pigs

Stein, Hans H., Olayiwola Adeola, Sung Woo Kim, Phillip S. Miller, Sunday A. Adedokun, and North Central Coordinating Committee on Swine Nutrition (NCCC-42).  2023. Digestibility of energy and concentrations of metabolizable energy and net energy varies among sources of bakery meal when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 101, 1–9. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad297.

Effects of pelleting and particle size reduction of corn on digestibility of starch, amino acids, fibre and fat, and concentration of net energy in corn-soybean meal diets fed to group-housed pigs

Lee, S. A., D. A. Rodriguez, C. B. Paulk, H. H. Stein. 2023. Effects of pelleting and particle size reduction of corn on digestibility of starch, amino acids, fibre and fat, and concentration of net energy in corn-soybean meal diets fed to group-housed pigs. Animal - science proceedings, Volume 14, Issue 7, Pages 857-858. doi: 10.1016/j.anscip.2023.09.041.

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Concentration of net energy in diets containing three different sources of field peas with different particle sizes fed to group-housed growing pigs

Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) are an annual season grain legume crop and are cultivated in areas that are too cold for the cultivation of soybeans. Market opportunities for field peas have increased in recent years, and the cost of cultivation is less for peas than for soybeans. The concentration of starch in field peas is less, but crude protein and amino acids are greater than in cereal grains. Therefore, in addition to providing amino acids, field peas also provide energy to swine diets, which is important because energy is the most expensive component in diets. As a consequence, it is important to determine the energy value of field peas. Agronomic practices, growing location, and differences among varieties may impact the nutritional properties of field peas, including energy digestibility. It was also observed that in-vitro energy digestibility of field peas was increased by reducing the particle size. However, there is no information on the effects of reducing particle size on concentrations of digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME), or net energy (NE) in field peas fed to group-housed pigs. Likewise, the digestibility of energy in field peas grown in the U.S. has not been compared with the digestibility of energy of field peas grown in Canada. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the particle size of field peas and the location where field peas were grown may affect the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and concentration of NE in field peas fed to growing pigs.  

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Concentration of net energy in corn without or with microbial phytase fed to group-housed pigs

Corn is the primary grain used in pig diets and provides most energy to the diets. Because energy is the most expensive component in diet formulation, it is critical to accurately determine energy concentrations in corn. Use of exogenous phytase in pig diets has been a standard and most phytase is expected to generate extra-phosphoric effects that result in increases in minerals, amino acid, or energy digestibility. Therefore, phytase companies have provided customers with matrix values that can be used for down specs of energy and nutrients in diet formulation. It is thus important to confirm if dietary phytase releases energy and other nutrients as suggested before using them. To our knowledge, however, there is no information on how much phytase can increase net energy (NE) in corn when fed to group-housed pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that addition of microbial phytase to a corn-based diet increased the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and concentration of NE by group-housed growing pigs.

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Both pelleting and reducing particle size of corn increase net energy and digestibility of amino acids and fat in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs

Pelleting and reducing particle size of grains often improve nutrient digestibility by pigs. Pelleting may also reduce particle size of grains, and it is not known if improvements in nutrient digestibility obtained by reducing the particle size of grain and improvements obtained by pelleting are additive or if there are interactions between particle size reduction and pelleting. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that particle size reduction and pelleting, separately or in combination, increase the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of starch, the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA), N balance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), fiber, and fat, and net energy (NE) in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs.

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Effects of Different Watering Options on Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and net Energy in Diets fed to Growing Pigs

Lee, Su A, Diego A. Rodriguez, Hans H. Stein. 2022. Effects of Different Watering Options on Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and net Energy in Diets fed to Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100, (Suppl. 3) 118, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac247.227. Link to full text.

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Determination of the net energy in soybean meal fed to group-housed pigs

Lee, Su A, D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Determination of the net energy in soybean meal fed to group-housed pigs. 15th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Animal - Science Proceedings 13(Issue 2): 178. Link to abstract.

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Effects of different watering options on net energy in diets fed to group-housed pigs

Depending on how facility allows pigs to drink water, considerable amounts of feeds can be wasted, which may affect digestibility of nutrients by pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that different watering options affect concentration of net energy (NE) in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs.

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Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previously estimated

Lee, Su A, D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previouly estimated. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, March, 2021. Link to full text.

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Determination of net energy in U.S. soybean meal fed to group-housed growing pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is the major source of amino acids in diets for swine throughout the world. However, in addition to providing indispensable amino acids to diets, SBM also provides energy to the diets. Diets are often formulated based on the net energy (NE) in each individual ingredient using a linear programming computer software. Therefore, the NE for each ingredient is important for the value the ingredient is assigned in the formulation. However, the NE for SBM that is used by most feed formulators was generated many years ago, but results of recent research indicate that current U.S. SBM may provide more NE than previously estimated, which potentially results in an increased estimation of the value of SBM in diets for pigs. There is, therefore, a need for confirming or updating the NE value for SBM. As a consequence, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the NE in U.S. SBM fed to modern genotypes of pigs is greater than the value that is currently used in feed formulation.

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Features of a new calorimetry unit to measure heat production and net energy by group-housed pigs

Muñoz, C. J., T. L. Funk, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Features of a new calorimetry unit to measure heat production and net energy by group-housed pigs. In: 6th EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Sep. 9-12, 2019. Pages 413-414. (Abstr.). Link to full text

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PSIV-11 Description of a novel Calorimetric unit to determine net energy in group housed pigs

Muñoz Cristhiam J., Hans H Stein. 2019. PSIV-11 Description of a novel Calorimetric unit to determine net energy in group housed pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 97, Issue Supplement_2, July 2019, Pages 178–179. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure

Jaworski, N. W., D. W. Liu, D. F. Li, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure. J. Anim. Sci. 94:3012-3021. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in soybean meal produced in different areas of the United States and fed to pigs

Sotak-Peper, K. M., J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in soybean meal produced in different areas of the United States and fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93:5694-5701. Link to full text (.pdf)

Digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wheat bran fed to growing pigs

When evaluating the energy content of pig diets, producers and feed companies in the United States usually use the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) systems. However, these systems do not take into account the heat produced by the animals during digestion, and thus the energy lost by pigs in the process of digesting and metabolizing the feed. Pigs fed diets high in fiber have greater feed intake, larger gastrointestinal tracts, and increased hindgut fermentation relative to pigs fed diets containing less fiber. Therefore, they might be expected to have greater heat production as well. As a result, the DE and ME systems may overestimate the energy value of fibrous feed ingredients. Net energy (NE) takes heat production into account, and thus may be a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the pig.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing dietary fiber in diets fed to growing pigs will increase heat production and decrease net energy values.

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Digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wheat bran fed to growing pigs

Jaworski, N. W., D. Liu, D. Li, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wheat bran fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):224 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable and net energy in soybean meal produced throughout the United States and fed to pigs

Sotak, K. M. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable and net energy in soybean meal produced throughout the United States and fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92(Suppl. 2):68-69 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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