Net energy

Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previously estimated

Lee, Su A, D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previouly estimated. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, March, 2021. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Determination of net energy in U.S. soybean meal fed to group-housed growing pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is the major source of amino acids in diets for swine throughout the world. However, in addition to providing indispensable amino acids to diets, SBM also provides energy to the diets. Diets are often formulated based on the net energy (NE) in each individual ingredient using a linear programming computer software. Therefore, the NE for each ingredient is important for the value the ingredient is assigned in the formulation. However, the NE for SBM that is used by most feed formulators was generated many years ago, but results of recent research indicate that current U.S. SBM may provide more NE than previously estimated, which potentially results in an increased estimation of the value of SBM in diets for pigs. There is, therefore, a need for confirming or updating the NE value for SBM. As a consequence, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the NE in U.S. SBM fed to modern genotypes of pigs is greater than the value that is currently used in feed formulation.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Features of a new calorimetry unit to measure heat production and net energy by group-housed pigs

Muñoz, C. J., T. L. Funk, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Features of a new calorimetry unit to measure heat production and net energy by group-housed pigs. In: 6th EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Sep. 9-12, 2019. Pages 413-414. (Abstr.). Link to full text

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

PSIV-11 Description of a novel Calorimetric unit to determine net energy in group housed pigs

Muñoz Cristhiam J., Hans H Stein. 2019. PSIV-11 Description of a novel Calorimetric unit to determine net energy in group housed pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 97, Issue Supplement_2, July 2019, Pages 178–179. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure

Jaworski, N. W., D. W. Liu, D. F. Li, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure. J. Anim. Sci. 94:3012-3021. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in soybean meal produced in different areas of the United States and fed to pigs

Sotak-Peper, K. M., J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in soybean meal produced in different areas of the United States and fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93:5694-5701. Link to full text (.pdf)

Digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wheat bran fed to growing pigs

When evaluating the energy content of pig diets, producers and feed companies in the United States usually use the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) systems. However, these systems do not take into account the heat produced by the animals during digestion, and thus the energy lost by pigs in the process of digesting and metabolizing the feed. Pigs fed diets high in fiber have greater feed intake, larger gastrointestinal tracts, and increased hindgut fermentation relative to pigs fed diets containing less fiber. Therefore, they might be expected to have greater heat production as well. As a result, the DE and ME systems may overestimate the energy value of fibrous feed ingredients. Net energy (NE) takes heat production into account, and thus may be a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the pig.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing dietary fiber in diets fed to growing pigs will increase heat production and decrease net energy values.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wheat bran fed to growing pigs

Jaworski, N. W., D. Liu, D. Li, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wheat bran fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):224 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable and net energy in soybean meal produced throughout the United States and fed to pigs

Sotak, K. M. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable and net energy in soybean meal produced throughout the United States and fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92(Suppl. 2):68-69 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in soybean meal produced in different areas of the United States and fed to pigs

One factor that affects the chemical composition of soybeans and soybean meal is where the beans were grown. For instance, soybeans grown in the northern United States contain less crude protein than soybeans grown further south. As a result, soybean meal produced from beans grown in the Northern United States often contain less crude protein than soybean meal produced from beans grown further south. However, less is known about how the concentrations of digestible (DE), metabolizable (ME), and net (NE) energy differs among meals produced from soybeans grown in different areas of the U.S. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of energy and concentrations of DE, ME, and NE in soybean meal produced from soybeans grown in different areas of the U.S. and fed to growing pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Feed energy evaluation for growing pigs. (Invited Review)

Kil, D. Y., B. G. Kim, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Feed energy evaluation for growing pigs. (Invited Review). Asian-Austr. J. Anim. Sci. 26: 1205-1217. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 

Effects of dietary soybean oil on pig growth performance, retention of protein, lipids, and energy, and the net energy of corn in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs

Kil, D. Y., F. Ji, L. L. Stewart, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of dietary soybean oil on pig growth performance, retention of protein, lipids, and energy, and the net energy of corn in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:3283-3290. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of dietary soybean hulls and wheat middlings on body composition, nutrient and energy retention, and the net energy of diets and ingredients fed to growing and finishing pigs

Stewart, L. L., D. Y. Kil, F. Ji, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of dietary soybean hulls and wheat middlings on body composition, nutrient and energy retention, and the net energy of diets and ingredients fed to growing and finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2756-2765. Link to full text (.pdf)

The nutritional quality of feed ingredients

Stein, H. H. 2012. The nutritional quality of feed ingredients. Pages 69-77 in Proceedings of the Chinese Swine Industry Symposium, Shanghai, October 24-26, 2012. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Net energy of soybean oil and choice white grease in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs

Kil, D. Y., F. Ji, L. L. Stewart, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Net energy of soybean oil and choice white grease in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:448-459. Link to full text (.pdf)

Comparison of measured values for NE in diets and ingredients fed to pigs and values predicted from European energy systems

Kil, D. Y., F. Ji, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, L. L. Stewart, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Comparison of measured values for NE in diets and ingredients fed to pigs and values predicted from European energy systems. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):100 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: 

Net energy of soybean hulls and wheat middlings in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs

Stewart, L. L., D. Y. Kil, F. Ji, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Net energy of soybean hulls and wheat middlings in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):99-100 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: 

Net energy of soybean oil and choice white grease in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs

Kil, D. Y., F. Ji, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, L. L. Stewart, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Net energy of soybean oil and choice white grease in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):99 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: 

Net energy content content of commercial and low-oligosaccharide soybean meal

Hinson, R. B., D. Y. Kil, A. D. Beaulieu, L. L. Stewart, J. Fi, J. E. Pettigrew, J. F. Patience, H. H. Stein, and G. L. Allee. 2009. Net energy content content of commercial and low-oligosaccharide soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):99 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: 

Effects of dietary lipids on net energy of corn in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs

Kil, D. Y., F. Ji, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, L. L. Stewart, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Effects of dietary lipids on net energy of corn in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):98-99 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: 

Pages