Calcium

Effects of concentration of calcium and phosphorus and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) on digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus and concentration of digestible energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Absorption of Ca and P by active transport in the small intestine is regulated by calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the hormones calcitonin and PTH. One-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) is an active vitamin D3 analog that does not require the second hydroxylation step for vitamin D3 to be active. It is possible that supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 may increase absorption of Ca and P.

The requirement for Ca and P by gestating sows increases in late gestation compared with early- and mid-gestation because of increased needs by the developing fetuses. It is also possible that dietary concentrations of Ca and P affect the rate of absorption of Ca and P in sows but data to demonstrate this have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the Ca and P concentrations in diets fed to gestating sows in late gestation and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 affect apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of Ca and P as well as the ATTD of GE and concentration of DE in diets. The second hypothesis was that there is an interaction between dietary Ca and P concentrations and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 in diets fed to gestating sows.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Increasing calcium from deficient to adequate concentration in diets for gestating sows decreases digestibility of phosphorus and reduces serum concentration of a bone resorption biomarker

Lee, Su A.,  L. Vanessa Lagos, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Increasing calcium from deficient to adequate concentration in diets for gestating sows decreases digestibility of phosphorus and reduces serum concentration of a bone resorption biomarker. Journal of Animal Science, 2020,  Vol. 98: No. 3:1-8.

Authors: 

Balance calcium effect on phosphorus in late-gestation sows’ diets

Lee, S. A., and H. H. Stein. 2019. Balance calcium effect on phosphorus in late-gestation sows’ diets. National Hog Farmer. August 29, 2019. Link to full text

Authors: 

Standardized total tract digestibility of calcium varies among sources of calcium carbonate, but not among sources of dicalcium phosphate, but microbial phytase increases calcium digestibility in calcium carbonate

Lee, Su A., L. Vanessa Lagos, Carrie L. Walk, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Standardized total tract digestibility of calcium varies among sources of calcium carbonate, but not among sources of dicalcium phosphate, but microbial phytase increases calcium digestibility in calcium carbonate. J. Anim. Sci. 2019.97:3440–3450.

Authors: 

Effects of microbial phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, corn, and sorghum fed to growing pigs

McGhee, Molly L., Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of microbial phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, corn, and sorghum fed to growing pigs. Transl. Anim. Sci. 2019.  Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 1238–1245. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Sows in mid-gestation have reduced digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with growing pigs

Lee, S., C. Walk, and H. Stein. 2018. Sows in mid-gestation have reduced digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with growing pigs. 14th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Adv. Anim. Biosci. Volume 9, Issue S2, 9:S193-194. (Abstr.). Link to abstract

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Basal endogenous loss, standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium carbonate, and retention of calcium in gestating sows change during gestation, but microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium

Lee Su A., L. Vanessa Lagos, Carrie L. Walk, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Basal endogenous loss, standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium carbonate, and retention of calcium in gestating sows change during gestation, but microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium. J. Anim. Sci. 2019.97:1712–1721. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus in swine diets

Lee, S. A., L. V. Lagos, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus in swine diets. In Proc. London Swine Conference, London, ON, Canada. March 26-27, 2019. Pages 63-72. Link full text(.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Increasing levels of microbial phytase increases the digestibility of energy and minerals in diets fed to pigs

Arredondo Mónica A., Gloria A. Casas, Hans H. Stein. 2019. Increasing levels of microbial phytase increases the digestibility of energy and minerals in diets fed to pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 248: 27 - 36. Link to full text.

Authors: 

Influence of the concentration of dietary digestible calcium on growth performance, bone ash, and abundance of genes involved in intestinal absorption of calcium in pigs from 11 to 25 kg fed diets with different concentrations of digestible phosphorus

Requirements for P for growing pigs are expressed as the requirement for standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P, whereas requirements for Ca are usually expressed as requirements for total Ca. It is, however, recognized that diets for pigs are most accurately formulated based on a STTD Ca:STTD P ratio, and recent work has generated values for STTD of Ca in most Ca containing feed ingredients, which makes it possible to formulate diets based on STTD Ca.

Recent data from the University of Illinois have indicated that if STTD P is at the requirement, a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P that is less than 1.35:1, 1.25:1, and 1.10:1 maximizes growth performance of pigs from 25 to 50 kg, 50 to 85 kg, and 100 to 130 kg, respectively. However, the STTD Ca:STTD P ratio needed to maximize bone ash is greater than the ratio needed to maximize growth performance. An attempt to estimate the requirement for STTD Ca by pigs from 11 to 25 kg was also made, but due to a reduction in ADG and G:F as dietary Ca increased, an optimal STTD Ca:STTD P ratio could not be estimated.

Calcium may be absorbed by transcellular or paracellular transport. Transcellular transport is the primary route if dietary Ca is low, but if dietary Ca is adequate or high, Ca is mainly absorbed using the paracellular route via the tight junctions. However, there are limited data demonstrating effects of dietary Ca concentration on abundance of genes related to transcellular and paracellular transport of Ca in the small intestine of pigs.

Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to test the hypotheses that a STTD Ca:STTD P ratio less than 1.40:1 maximizes growth performance of pigs from 11 to 25 kg and that increasing dietary Ca downregulates abundance of genes related to transcellular absorption of Ca and tight junction proteins in the small intestine.

 

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Effect of dietary calcium on growth performance of growing pigs

Lee, S. A., Vanessa Lagos, and Hans H. Stein. 2018. Effect of dietary calcium on growth performance of growing pigs. Pages 173 - 184. XXXIV Specialization Course FEDNA, Madrid, Nov. 22 - 23, 2018. Link to full text (.pdf)

 

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Basal endogenous loss, standardized total tract digestibility, and retention of calcium in gestating sows changes during gestation, but microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium by gestating sows

Standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca has been determined for most Ca containing ingredients fed to growing pigs, but the basal endogenous loss of Ca is greater and the STTD of Ca in sows in mid-gestation are less than in growing pigs. As a consequence, if diets for gestating sows are formulated using STTD values determined in growing pigs, the provisions of digestible Ca may be less than anticipated.

The efficacy of phytase to release Ca and P is believed to be influenced by the physiological state of pigs with phytase fed to sows in mid-gestation releasing less Ca and P compared with growing pigs or sows in late-gestation. However, it is not known if values for STTD of Ca or retention of Ca and P that are measured in one period of gestation are representative of the entire gestation period.

Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the STTD of Ca from calcium carbonate and the response to microbial phytase on STTD of Ca and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P in corn-based diets fed to gestating sows are constant throughout the gestating period for sows. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that retention of Ca and P does not change during gestation.

 

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Comparative digestibility and retention rate of calcium and phosphorus in low- and high-phytate diets fed to gestating sows and growing pigs

Digestibility of Ca and P is most correctly determined as standardized total tract digestibility (STTD). Data for the STTD of P in most feed ingredients have been published, and the STTD of Ca has also been determined in many feed ingredients. However, in practical diet formulation, values for STTD of Ca and P obtained in growing pigs are also applied to sows although there is a lack of comparative data between growing pigs and sows.

Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that no differences exist between gestating sows and growing pigs for basal endogenous losses, STTD, and retention of Ca and P.

 

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Inclusion of excess dietary calcium in diets for 100- to 130-kg growing pigs reduces feed intake and daily gain if dietary phosphorus is at or below the requirement

Merriman, L. A., C. L. Walk, M. R. Murphy, C. M. Parsons, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Inclusion of excess dietary calcium in diets for 100- to 130-kg growing pigs reduces feed intake and daily gain if dietary phosphorus is at or below the requirement. J. Anim. Sci. 95:5439-5446. Link to abstract

Effects of Calmin on energy, calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen balance and on growth performance of weanling pigs

Calmin is a calcium supplement produced from sea minerals. It also contains 6% magnesium, which may increase calcium absorption. Calmin has been used as a rumen buffer in dairy cows, but limited data are available for pigs. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the effect of feeding diets containing Calmin on calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen balance, energy balance, and growth performance of weanling pigs.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Nutritional value of soybean products

Sotak, K. M. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Nutritional value of soybean products. Pages 19-25 in Proc. Midwest Swine Nutr. Conf. Indianapolis, IN, Sep. 4, 2014. Link to full text (.pdf)

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Determination of endogenous intestinal losses of Ca and digestibility of Ca in canola meal fed to growing pigs

González-Vega, J. C., C. L. Walk, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Determination of endogenous intestinal losses of Ca and digestibility of Ca in canola meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):190 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

Publication Type: 

Determination of endogenous intestinal losses of calcium and apparent and true total tract digestibility of calcium in canola meal fed to growing pigs

When formulating diets for pigs, it is more accurate to use values for standardized or true nutrient digestibility than values for apparent nutrient digestibility because the former are additive in mixed diets. No values for standardized or true total tract digestibility of calcium in pigs have been reported. The true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of a nutrient is calculated by correcting apparently total tract digestibility (ATTD) by total endogenous losses, which may be estimated using a regression procedure. To our knowledge, no measurements of the endogenous loss of calcium in pigs have been reported. An experiment was, therefore,  performed to measure endogenous loss of calcium and to determine TTTD of calcium in growing pigs, and to investigate if  the addition of microbial phytase to the diets affects TTTD of calcium. In addition, calcium retention was measured in pigs fed diets containing varying levels of calcium with or without microbial phytase.

Publication Type: 

Evaluation of the nutritional value of sources of canola meal fed to pigs

Canola meal is produced from the rapeseed plant, a relative of broccoli and mustard. Natural rapeseed contains glucosinolates, which make feed unpalatable, and erucic acid, which is toxic to animals. These anti-nutritional factors are heat-stable, and therefore, cannot be removed by heat-treating rapeseed. Rapeseed, which is low in both glucosinolates and erucic acid, has been produced by hybridization, and is called canola in Canada and the United States and 00-rapeseed in Europe. Oil can be removed from canola and rapeseeds via solvent extraction or mechanically expelling. The solvent extraction process results in production of canola meal or 00-rapeseed meal and mechanical expelling of oil results in production of canola expellers or 00-rapeseed expellers.

The objective of this study was to compare the chemical compositions of canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal from Europe and to compare the composition of 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers.  Ten samples of canola meal were collected from crushing plants in North America, and eleven samples of 00-rapeseed meal and five samples of 00-rapeseed expellers were collected from crushing plants in Europe. The samples were analyzed for energy, fat, sugar, starch, fiber, crude protein, amino acids, and minerals.

Authors: 
Publication Type: 

Concentration of dietary calcium supplied by calcium carbonate does not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium, but decreases digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs

Stein, H. H., O. Adeola, G. L. Cromwell, S. W. Kim, D. C. Mahan, and P. S. Miller. 2011. Concentration of dietary calcium supplied by calcium carbonate does not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium, but decreases digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2139-2144. Link to full text (.pdf)

Pages