Calcium

Effect of microbial phytase on digestibility of phosphorus in seven sources of sunflower meal fed to growing pigs

The majority of P in oilseed co-products is bound to phytate; however, pigs do not synthesize adequate amount of endogenous phytate to liberate the P bound to phytate and the digestibility of P in sunflower meal, therefore is low. Values for ATTD and STTD of P in sunflower meal (SFM) without and with phytase have been reported, but there are no comparative values for the ATTD and STTD of P in sunflower co-products produced in different parts of the world. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the ATTD and the STTD of P in different sources of sunflower co-products, and to test the hypothesis that regardless of source, microbial phytase increases the digestibility of P in sunflower co-products fed to young pigs.

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Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs.15th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Animal - Science Proceedings 13(Issue 2): 178 - 179. Link to abstract.

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Calcium and phosphorus in late-gestation

Lee, S. A., and H. H. Stein. 2022. Calcium and phosphorus in late-gestation. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, July 14, 2022. Link to full text. 

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Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids is not likely affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs

There are several factors related to dietary Ca that may influence digestibility of amino acids (AA). By chelating to dietary phytate, dietary Ca can form non-digestible Ca-phytate complexes, and this may result in reductions of P and AA digestibility. However, adding Ca to diets may increase activation of proteases as co-factors, which could result in increased AA digestibility. In contrast, pH in the digesta may be increased by adding Ca to diets, which likely will have a negative effect on activation of protein digesting enzymes. However, to our knowledge, no data demonstrating effects of increasing dietary Ca on digestibility of AA in pigs have been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the concentration of Ca in diets affects apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA by pigs.

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Effects of dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus, and 1-alphahydroxycholecalciferol on digestibility, retention of calcium and phosphorus, and concentration of metabolizable energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Lee, Su A., and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Effects of dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus, and 1-alphahydroxycholecalciferol on digestibility, retention of calcium and phosphorus, and concentration of  metabolizable energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 102: 184–188 (2022) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0018. Link to full text.

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Effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3)and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) on serum bone biomarkers and calcium and phosphorus balance and concentrations on energy in diets without or with microbial phytase fed to sows in late gestation

Absorption of Ca and P by active transport in the small intestine is regulated by calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the hormones calcitonin and PTH. One-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) are vitamin D metabolites that may be added to diets for pigs. Because 1-α-OH-D3 is already hydroxylated at the 1-position, only the first hydroxylation in the liver at the 25-position is needed to convert the metabolite to calcitriol. Likewise, because the 25-OH-D3 is already hydroxylated at the 25-position, only the second hydroxylation in the kidney at the 1-position is needed if this metabolite is used. It is possible that supplementation of diets with 25-OH-D3 or 1-α-OH-D3 increases absorption and retention of Ca and P by increasing the conversion efficiency to calcitriol compared with the conversion of cholecalciferol to calcitriol. It is possible that the effects on Ca and P balance differ between 25-OH-D3 and 1-α-OH-D, but research to test this hypothesis has not been reported.

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Reduced dietary Ca and P did not affect gastric pH or fecal score, but reduced growth performance and bone ash, whereas increased microbial phytase increased plasma inositol, and feed efficiency of weanling pigs

Lagos, L. V., and H. H. Stein. 2021. Reduced dietary Ca and P did not affect gastric pH or fecal score, but reduced growth performance and bone ash, whereas increased microbial phytase increased plasma inositol, and feed efficiency of weanling pigs. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, September, 2021. Link to full text.

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Calcium and phosphorus in late gestation.

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Calcium and phosphorus in late gestation. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, January, 2022. Link to full text.

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Increased microbial phytase increased phytate destruction, plasma inositol, and feed efficiency of weanling pigs, but reduced dietary calcium and phosphorus did not affect gastric pH or fecal score and reduced growth performance and bone ash

Lagos, L. Vanessa, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Increased microbial phytase increased phytate destruction, plasma inositol, and feed efficiency of weanling pigs, but reduced dietary calcium and phosphorus did not affect gastric pH or fecal score and reduced growth performance and bone ash. J. Anim. Sci. 99: 12, 1-13. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab333.

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Effects of increasing phytase dose on total tract digestibility of minerals and energy in pigs

In most plant feed ingredients, the majority of P is bound to phytate, which reduces digestibility of P in pigs, and therefore, the concentration of digestible P in these ingredients is relatively low. Phytate is negatively charged in the intestinal tract and can bind both endogenous and dietary nutrients, which results in precipitation of non-digestible nutrient-phytate complexes. Therefore, it is possible that the use of exogenous phytase can also increase the digestibility of other nutrients than P. As an example, addition of exogenous phytase to diets also releases Ca from phytate, and thus, increases the digestibility of Ca. However, it has not been conclusively demonstrated that phytase also increases the digestibility of energy-generating nutrients and other minerals in diets fed to pigs and inconsistent results among experiments have been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that increasing phytase dose increases the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals and gross energy (GE) in corn and soybean meal-based diets fed to growing pigs.

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Comparative digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus in normal- and high-phytate diets fed to gestating sows and growing pigs

Lee, S. A., M. R. Bedford, H. H. Stein. 2021. Comparative digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus in normal- and high-phytate diets fed to gestating sows and growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 280 (2021) 115084. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.115084. Link to full text.

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Ca and P digestibility values aren’t accurate for formulating sow diets

Lee, Su A and H. H. Stein. 2021. Ca and P digestibility values aren’t accurate for formulating sow diets. Pork Magazine, On-line edition, Sep. 9, 2021. Link to full text.

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Quantities of ash, Ca, and P in metacarpals, metatarsals, and tibia are better correlated with total body bone ash in growing pigs than ash, Ca, and P in other bones

Lee, Su A, L. Vanessa Lagos, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Quantities of ash, Ca, and P in metacarpals, metatarsals, and tibia are better correlated with total body bone ash in growing pigs than ash, Ca, and P in other bones. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 6, 1–6. doi:10.1093/jas/skab149.

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Formulation of diets for pigs based on a ratio between digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus results in reduced excretion of calcium in urine without affecting retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with formulation based on values for total

Lagos, L. Vanessa, Su A Lee, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Formulation of diets for pigs based on a ratio between digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus results in reduced excretion of calcium in urine without affecting retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with formulation based on values for total calcium. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 5, 1–7. doi:10.1093/jas/skab138.

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Formulating diets based on digestible calcium instead of total calcium does not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics, but microbial phytase ameliorates bone resorption caused by low calcium in diets fed to pigs from 11 to 130 kg

Lagos, L. Vanessa, Su A Lee, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Formulating diets based on digestible calcium instead of total calcium does not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics, but microbial phytase ameliorates bone resorption caused by low calcium in diets fed to pigs from 11 to 130 kg. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 3, 1–11. doi:10.1093/jas/skab057.

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The effect of increasing phytase dose to 1000 FTU/kg on phosphorous and calcium digestibility in pigs fed diets without inorganic P

Rundle, Carly M., Barthold Hillen, Yueming Dersjant-Li, Anne-Marie Debicki-Garnier, Hans H Stein. 2020. The effect of increasing phytase dose to 1000 FTU/kg on phosphorous and calcium digestibility in pigs fed diets without inorganic P. J. Anim. Sci. 98(Suppl. 4): 100-101. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa278.184. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Young Scholar Presentation: Digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in feed ingredients fed to gestating sows and growing pigs

Lee, Su A, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Young Scholar Presentation: Digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in feed ingredients fed to gestating sows and growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 98(Suppl. 3): 111. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa054.188. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Dietary calcium decreases digestibility of phosphorus in late gestating sows, but blood biomarkers may be used to predict bone formation and resorption

Lee, Su A, Mike R. Bedford, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Dietary calcium decreases digestibility of phosphorus in late gestating sows, but blood biomarkers may be used to predict bone formation and resorption. J. Anim. Sci. 98(Suppl. 3): 105. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa054.179.(Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Effects of concentration of calcium and phosphorus and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) on digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus and concentration of digestible energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Absorption of Ca and P by active transport in the small intestine is regulated by calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the hormones calcitonin and PTH. One-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) is an active vitamin D3 analog that does not require the second hydroxylation step for vitamin D3 to be active. It is possible that supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 may increase absorption of Ca and P.

The requirement for Ca and P by gestating sows increases in late gestation compared with early- and mid-gestation because of increased needs by the developing fetuses. It is also possible that dietary concentrations of Ca and P affect the rate of absorption of Ca and P in sows but data to demonstrate this have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the Ca and P concentrations in diets fed to gestating sows in late gestation and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 affect apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of Ca and P as well as the ATTD of GE and concentration of DE in diets. The second hypothesis was that there is an interaction between dietary Ca and P concentrations and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 in diets fed to gestating sows.

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Increasing calcium from deficient to adequate concentration in diets for gestating sows decreases digestibility of phosphorus and reduces serum concentration of a bone resorption biomarker

Lee, Su A.,  L. Vanessa Lagos, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Increasing calcium from deficient to adequate concentration in diets for gestating sows decreases digestibility of phosphorus and reduces serum concentration of a bone resorption biomarker. Journal of Animal Science, 2020,  Vol. 98: No. 3:1-8.

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