Phosphorus digestibility

Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):122 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of including microbial phytase in diets fed to pigs and broilers

Lowell, J. E., M. Song, J. K. Mathai, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of including microbial phytase in diets fed to pigs and broilers. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):121 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs

Rodríguez, D. A., R. C. Sulabo, J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):116-117 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs

Sulabo, R. C. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:1285-1294. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of a novel bacterial phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae on digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in diets fed to weanling or growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., R. C. Sulabo, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of a novel bacterial phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae on digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in diets fed to weanling or growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 4:8. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Baker, S. R., B. G. Kim, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:203-210. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect on phosphorous and energy digestibility of reducing the particle size of corn fed to growing pigs

Research has shown that grinding cereal grains in diets fed to pigs into smaller particle sizes improves growth performance. Feed ground to smaller particle sizes has more surface area on which digestive enzymes can work, so digestibility of energy and nutrients that are enzymatically digested may also  improved. Generating specific data on energy and nutrient digestibility will help determine the optimal particle size for feed ingredients.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and to measure the apparent (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus by growing pigs fed diets containing corn that was ground to different particle sizes.

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Phosphorus digestibility in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

With the prices of cereal grains rising, opportunities to reduce feed costs by using alternative ingredients are being explored. One source of alternative feed ingredients is co-products from the use of corn in the production of food for humans. Only limited published information is available on the digestibility of phosphorus in corn co-products derived from the human food industry.

Phosphorus from plant sources is often bound to phytate, which decreases the availability of the phosphorus to the pigs because pigs do not produce the enzyme phytase. The addition of microbial phytase to diets containing corn and soybean meal increases phosphorus digestibility in these ingredients. However, no data have been published on the effect of adding phytase to diets containing hominy feed,  bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or corn germ meal.

Therefore, an experiment was performed to determine the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of phosphorus in hominy feed, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, and to compare these values to the values obtained for corn and DDGS. The effect of the addition of microbial phytase to the diets on the digestibility of phosphorus in the experimental ingredients was also measured.

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Phosphorus digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is a high quality source of protein for swine diets. Due to the growth in global production of pigs and poultry, demand for soybeans is increasing rapidly, outpacing production. Therefore, other sources of plant protein are sometimes used in diets to supply indispensable amino acids to the animals.
The most abundant oilseeds produced in the world, aside from soybeans, are cottonseed, canola seed (rapeseed), and sunflower seed. These oilseeds may be fed as de-oiled meals, or the full fat seeds can be fed to increase the energy concentration of the diet.

Oilseeds and oilseed meals also provide phosphorus to the diet. However, most of the phosphorus in these sources is bound to phytate, and is not available to pigs. An experiment was performed to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products, and to discover how the addition of phytase influences the STTD of phosphorus. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of calcium and the effect of adding phytase on ATTD of calcium were also measured.

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Energy, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility in Lemna protein concentrate, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Energy, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility in Lemna protein concentrate, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):467 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs of fermented and conventional soybean meal without and with microbial phytase

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs of fermented and conventional soybean meal without and with microbial phytase. J. Anim. Sci. 90:1506-1512. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on the standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and corn coproducts fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on the standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and corn coproducts fed to pigs. J. Anim Sci. 90:1262-1269. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in whey powder, whey permeate, and low-ash whey permeate fed to weanling pigs

Kim, B. G., J. W. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in whey powder, whey permeate, and low-ash whey permeate fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90:289-295. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in blood products fed to weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in blood products fed to weanling pigs. Rev. Colomb. Cienc. Pecu. 24:617-622. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Correct use of microbial phytase in diets fed to pigs

By Dr. Hans H. Stein

November, 2011

Microbial phytase is often used in diets fed to pigs because it is well established that the digestibility of phosphorus in many ingredients is increased if microbial phytase is used in the diet. The reason for this increase in digestibility is that microbial phytase has the ability to release some of the phosphorus that is bound in the phytate complex in many feed ingredients. Without phytase in the diet, most of the phytate-bound phosphorus is not digested by the pigs and is instead excreted in the manure.

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Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in whey powder, whey permeate, and low-ash whey permeate fed to weanling pigs

Whey powder is a co-product of the cheese industry, and consists primarily of lactose and protein. The inclusion of whey powder in weanling pig diets improve growth performance; this is believed to be due to the lactose fraction. Because of the demand for whey protein from the human food industry, the protein is sometimes extracted from whey powder. The resulting product is called whey permeate.

Few values for digestible and metabolizable energy in whey permeate have been reported. In addition, the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus in these ingredients has not been reported. Therefore, two experiments were conducted: the first, to determine the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in whey powder, whey permeate, and low-ash whey permeate; and the second, to determine the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in the same ingredients.

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Digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs

Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a product of the rendering industry composed primarily of the offal and bones of slaughtered livestock, fat from unmarketable animal tissues, unsellable retail meat products, and whole condemned carcasses (excluding hair, blood, hooves, horns, and contents of the gastrointestinal tract).  MBM is traditionally used as an animal protein source in swine diets, but because of its high concentrations of calcium and phosphorus, it can also replace inorganic phosphates in swine diets.

The proportions of soft tissue and bone in different sources of MBM can vary widely. Because mineral digestibility differs in bone and soft tissue, the variation in composition of MBM sources leads to a variation in mineral digestibility values.

An experiment was conducted to 1) determine the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of phosphorus and the ATTD of calcium in 8 different sources of MBM,  2) estimate variation among MBM sources, and 3) develop equations to predict the concentrations of digestible phosphorus and calcium in MBM.

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Apparent and standardized digestibility of phosphorus in Dried Fermentation Biomass, Peptone 50, PEP2+, and fish meal by weanling pigs

Dried Fermentation Biomass (Ajinomoto Heartland LLC, Chicago, IL) is a co-product of the commercial production of lysine. Peptone 50 and PEP2+ (TechMix LLC, Stewart MN) are co-products of heparin production for the human pharmaceutical industry. The latter two products are produced from hydrolyzed pig intestines that are co-dried with a vegetable protein (Peptone 50) or enzymatically processed vegetable proteins (PEP2+). These co-products are possible replacements for fish meal in weanling pig diets.

An experiment was conducted to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD)  of phosphorus in Dried Fermentation Biomass, Peptone 50, PEP2+, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs.

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Standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus

Stein, H. H. 2011. Standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus. Pages 47-52 in Proc. Midwest Swine Nutr. Conf. Indianapolis, IN, Sep. 8, 2011. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of P in copra expellers, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs

Almaguer, B. L., R. C. Sulabo, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Effects of phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of P in copra expellers, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):187 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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