Lee

Effects of different watering options on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diets fed to growing pigs

Depending on how facility allows pigs to drink water, considerable amounts of feeds can be wasted, which may affect digestibility of nutrients by pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that different watering options affect the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs.

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Digestibility of Energy, Dry Matter, Protein, and Fat and Concentration of Metabolizable Energy in Sunflower Meal and Sunflower Expellers Fed to Growing Pigs

Ibagon, J. A., Su A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility of Energy, Dry Matter, Protein, and Fat and Concentration of Metabolizable Energy in Sunflower Meal and Sunflower Expellers Fed to Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100 (Suppl. 2): 41–42. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac064.064. Link to Abstr.

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Effects of Increasing Dose of a Novel E. coli Phytase on Total Tract Digestibility of Minerals and Energy in Pigs

Lee, Su A., and H. H. Stein. 2022. Effects of Increasing Dose of a Novel E. coli Phytase on Total Tract Digestibility of Minerals and Energy in Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100(Suppl. 2): 36-37. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac064.059. Link to Abstr.

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Effects of dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus, and 1-alphahydroxycholecalciferol on digestibility, retention of calcium and phosphorus, and concentration of metabolizable energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Lee, Su A., and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Effects of dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus, and 1-alphahydroxycholecalciferol on digestibility, retention of calcium and phosphorus, and concentration of  metabolizable energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 102: 184–188 (2022) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0018. Link to full text.

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Effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3)and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) on serum bone biomarkers and calcium and phosphorus balance and concentrations on energy in diets without or with microbial phytase fed to sows in late gestation

Absorption of Ca and P by active transport in the small intestine is regulated by calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the hormones calcitonin and PTH. One-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) are vitamin D metabolites that may be added to diets for pigs. Because 1-α-OH-D3 is already hydroxylated at the 1-position, only the first hydroxylation in the liver at the 25-position is needed to convert the metabolite to calcitriol. Likewise, because the 25-OH-D3 is already hydroxylated at the 25-position, only the second hydroxylation in the kidney at the 1-position is needed if this metabolite is used. It is possible that supplementation of diets with 25-OH-D3 or 1-α-OH-D3 increases absorption and retention of Ca and P by increasing the conversion efficiency to calcitriol compared with the conversion of cholecalciferol to calcitriol. It is possible that the effects on Ca and P balance differ between 25-OH-D3 and 1-α-OH-D, but research to test this hypothesis has not been reported.

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Calcium and phosphorus in late gestation.

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Calcium and phosphorus in late gestation. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, January, 2022. Link to full text.

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Effects of increasing dietary protein on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in soybean meal and soy protein concentrate fed to growing pigs

Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) is affected by CP and AA concentrations in diets because of the different contributions of endogenous N and AA to the ileal digesta from pigs fed diets with different concentrations of CP. Because of the influence of dietary CP and AA on calculated values for AID, values for AID obtained in individual feed ingredients are not always additive in mixed diets if the concentration of CP and AA in the mixed diet is different from that of the ingredients. Therefore, values for standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, which are corrected for the basal ileal endogenous losses of CP and AA, are used in diet formulations to avoid the influence of endogenous AA on digestibility values, and SID values are, therefore, additive in mixed diets.

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Effects of phosphorus level and increasing phytase dose on basal endogenous loss of calcium and balance of phosphorus in pigs fed diets containing phytate P at commercial level

In plant-based feed ingredients there is a considerable amount of P bound to phytate, limiting the amount of P that is available for utilization, but inclusion of microbial phytase in pig diets increases the digestibility of P. The negatively charged phytate molecule can chelate Ca cations resulting in formation of insoluble Ca-phytate complexes. Degradation of phytate by microbial phytase may prevent formation of these non-digestible complexes, resulting in increased Ca digestibility. It is also possible that use of exogenous phytase reduces endogenous loss of Ca. If indeed the reduced endogenous loss of Ca is a result of degradation of phytate, it is expected that increased doses of dietary phytase will linearly reduce endogenous losses of Ca, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing dietary phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of Ca and increases digestibility of P in growing pigs.

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Digestibility of energy, dry matter, protein, and fat and concentration of metabolizable energy in sunflower meal and sunflower expellers fed to growing pigs

Sunflower meal (SFM) is a protein source that can be included in diets for pigs and other livestock species. In addition to providing amino acids, SFM also provide energy and other nutrients to diets, but because of the high concentration of fiber, SFM does not contain as much energy as other oilseed meals. The nutritive value of SFM depend on growing area, degree of de-hulling, and oil extraction process. Sunflower meal is obtained through a prepress-solvent extraction method, which yields a meal product with less than 3% fat. However, a double press procedure without solvent extraction may also be used to remove oil from the seeds, which results in generation of a co-product called sunflower expellers (SFE). Because the double-press procedure is less efficient in removing oil from the seeds, SFE contains between 6 and 10% oil. The concentration of fiber and protein also varies among different sources of SFM and SFE and is largely determined by the degree of de-hulling that takes place prior to oil extraction. Because the hulls are very high in fiber, there is a linear relationship between fiber concentration and the concentration of hulls in SFM and SFE, and there is a negative relationship between fiber and protein concentrations. However, data on the digestibility of nutrients and energy and concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in different sources of sunflower co-products are limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, crude protein, fat, and gross energy and concentrations of DE and ME in SFM fed to growing pigs. The second objective was to test the null hypothesis that there are no difference in the ATTD of nutrients and energy concentrations between SFM and SFE fed to growing pigs.

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Effects of increasing phytase dose on total tract digestibility of minerals and energy in pigs

In most plant feed ingredients, the majority of P is bound to phytate, which reduces digestibility of P in pigs, and therefore, the concentration of digestible P in these ingredients is relatively low. Phytate is negatively charged in the intestinal tract and can bind both endogenous and dietary nutrients, which results in precipitation of non-digestible nutrient-phytate complexes. Therefore, it is possible that the use of exogenous phytase can also increase the digestibility of other nutrients than P. As an example, addition of exogenous phytase to diets also releases Ca from phytate, and thus, increases the digestibility of Ca. However, it has not been conclusively demonstrated that phytase also increases the digestibility of energy-generating nutrients and other minerals in diets fed to pigs and inconsistent results among experiments have been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that increasing phytase dose increases the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals and gross energy (GE) in corn and soybean meal-based diets fed to growing pigs.

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Comparative digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus in normal- and high-phytate diets fed to gestating sows and growing pigs

Lee, S. A., M. R. Bedford, H. H. Stein. 2021. Comparative digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus in normal- and high-phytate diets fed to gestating sows and growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 280 (2021) 115084. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.115084. Link to full text.

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Ca and P digestibility values aren’t accurate for formulating sow diets

Lee, Su A and H. H. Stein. 2021. Ca and P digestibility values aren’t accurate for formulating sow diets. Pork Magazine, On-line edition, Sep. 9, 2021. Link to full text.

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Addition of hydrochloric acid to collection bags or collection containers did not change basal endogenous losses or ileal digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Lee, Su A, Laia Blavi, Diego M. D. L. Navarro, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Addition of hydrochloric acid to collection bags or collection containers did not change basal endogenous losses or ileal digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs. Animal Bioscience Vol. 34, No. 10:1632-1642 October 2021. doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0838.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in three sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs

Corn coproducts produced from the fuel ethanol or the wet milling industries may be used in diets for pigs. Different technologies are used to develop high protein corn co-products, but in addition to providing amino acids to the diets, high protein corn co-products also provide energy to the diets. The energy concentrations in corn protein may depend on the concentrations of fat, carbohydrates, and protein in sources of corn protein. Newly developed corn proteins contain 40 to 50% crude protein. There are, however, limited data on how differences in the chemical composition of different sources of corn protein influence the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) when fed to weanling pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and concentrations of DE and ME among 3 sources of corn protein when fed to weanling pigs.

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Sunflower expellers have greater ileal digestibility of amino acids than sunflower meal, but there are only minor variations among different sources of sunflower meal when fed to growing pigs

Ibagon, Jimena A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Sunflower expellers have greater ileal digestibility of amino acids than sunflower meal, but there are only minor variations among different sources of sunflower meal when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No.

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Growth performance and carcass quality are not different between pigs fed diets containing cold-fermented low-oil DDGS and pigs fed conventional DDGS, but pelleting improves gain to feed ratio regardless of source of DDGS

Rodriguez, Diego A.,  Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Growth performance and carcass quality are not different between pigs fed diets containing cold-fermented low-oil DDGS and pigs fed conventional DDGS, but pelleting improves gain to feed ratio regardless of source of DDGS. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 8, 1–8. doi:10.1093/jas/skab129.

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Reduced concentrations of limestone and monocalcium phosphate in diets without or with microbial phytase did not influence gastric pH, fecal score, or growth performance, but reduced bone ash and serum albumin in weanling pigs

Lagos, L. Vanessa, Su A Lee, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Reduced concentrations of limestone and monocalcium phosphate in diets without or with microbial phytase did not influence gastric pH, fecal score, or growth performance, but reduced bone ash and serum albumin in weanling pigs. Transl. Anim. Sci. 2021.5:1-10. doi.org/10.1093/tas/txab115.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in three sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs

Corn coproducts produced from the fuel ethanol or the wet milling industries may be used in diets fed to pigs. Newly developed corn proteins are high protein feed ingredients with approximately 40 to 50% crude protein (CP), and corn protein may be a great source of digestible amino acids (AA) in diets fed to weanling pigs. There are, however, limited data on the digestibility of AA in different sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in 3 different sources of corn protein when fed to weanling pigs.

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Analyzed values for P and phytate in feed ingredients

Phytic acid is the main storage of P in plants, and most P in plant feed ingredients is bound in the phytate complex. Because pigs do not secrete phytase, an enzyme to hydrolyze inositol bonds in phytate, the utilization of P by pigs is very low. Addition of supplemental phytase to diets thus results in release of P and increases P utilization by pigs. However, all enzymes have a special recognition mechanism called specificity that works only with molecules that fit to active sites of the enzyme. Therefore, it is important to know how much of P is phytate-bound and how much of the P in a given diet is not phytate-bound.

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Quantities of ash, Ca, and P in metacarpals, metatarsals, and tibia are better correlated with total body bone ash in growing pigs than ash, Ca, and P in other bones

Lee, Su A, L. Vanessa Lagos, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Quantities of ash, Ca, and P in metacarpals, metatarsals, and tibia are better correlated with total body bone ash in growing pigs than ash, Ca, and P in other bones. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 6, 1–6. doi:10.1093/jas/skab149.

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