Lee

Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in three different sources of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) with different particle sizes fed to weanling pigs

Field peas have been produced mainly for human consumption, but lastly, the industry has been included in diets fed to livestock due to its content of starch and protein. In diets for swine, only peas that are harvested at maturity are used. Almost 80% of P in non-oilseed legumes is bound to phytate, and pigs do not synthesize an adequate amount of endogenous phytate to liberate the P bound to phytate. Therefore, the digestibility of P in field peas is relatively low. Values for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in field peas have been reported, but there are no comparative values for the ATTD and STTD of P among different varieties of field peas at different particle sizes. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in the ATTD and the STTD of P among different sources of field peas fed to young pigs and the second hypothesis was that there is a linear increase in the ATTD and STTD of P as the particle size of field peas increases.

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Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by pigs is not affected by increasing dietary calcium from deficient to excess concentrations, but phosphorus digestibility is reduced

Lee, Su A, H. H. Stein. 2022. Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by pigs is not affected by increasing dietary calcium from deficient to excess concentrations, but phosphorus digestibility is reduced. Animal Feed Science and Technology 292 (2022) 115436. Link to full text.
 

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Vitamin D and vitamin D metabolites impact on calcium and phosphorus balance in gestating sows

Lee, S. A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Vitamin D and vitamin D metabolites impact on calcium and phosphorus balance in gestating sows. Proc. 21th Annual Midwest Swine Nutrition Conf. Danville, IN, Sep. 8, 2022. Pages 39-43. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs.15th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Animal - Science Proceedings 13(Issue 2): 178 - 179. Link to abstract.

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Determination of the net energy in soybean meal fed to group-housed pigs

Lee, Su A, D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Determination of the net energy in soybean meal fed to group-housed pigs. 15th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Animal - Science Proceedings 13(Issue 2): 178. Link to abstract.

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Calcium and phosphorus in late-gestation

Lee, S. A., and H. H. Stein. 2022. Calcium and phosphorus in late-gestation. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, July 14, 2022. Link to full text. 

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Addition of hydrogen chloride to collection bags or containers did not change basal endogenous losses or digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Lee, Su A, L. Blavi, D. M. D. L. Navarro, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Addition of hydrogen chloride to collection bags or containers did not change basal endogenous losses or digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 99(Suppl. 1):166-167. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.281. Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of starch, crude protein and amino acids in three sources of field peas ground at two different particle sizes fed to growing pigs

Market opportunities for field peas (Pisum sativum L.) have rapidly increased for livestock feed and human food, due of the high nutritional quality of pea protein. However, as is the case with some feed ingredients, differences in soil, varieties, agronomic practices and growing method may change the nutritional characteristics of the peas as well as digestibility of nutrients. In addition, it is possible that differences in the particle size of field peas change the digestibility of energy and nutrients as has been reported for other ingredients. However, information about the effects of particle size of peas on digestibility of starch and amino acids (AA) are limited. Additionally, there is limited research to compare the digestibility of AA among field peas produced in different regions of the U.S. and Canada. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein and starch, and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in field peas may be affected by the particle size of the field peas and the region where the field peas were grown.

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Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids is not likely affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs

There are several factors related to dietary Ca that may influence digestibility of amino acids (AA). By chelating to dietary phytate, dietary Ca can form non-digestible Ca-phytate complexes, and this may result in reductions of P and AA digestibility. However, adding Ca to diets may increase activation of proteases as co-factors, which could result in increased AA digestibility. In contrast, pH in the digesta may be increased by adding Ca to diets, which likely will have a negative effect on activation of protein digesting enzymes. However, to our knowledge, no data demonstrating effects of increasing dietary Ca on digestibility of AA in pigs have been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the concentration of Ca in diets affects apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA by pigs.

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Effects of different watering options on net energy in diets fed to group-housed pigs

Depending on how facility allows pigs to drink water, considerable amounts of feeds can be wasted, which may affect digestibility of nutrients by pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that different watering options affect concentration of net energy (NE) in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs.

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Effects of different watering options on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diets fed to growing pigs

Depending on how facility allows pigs to drink water, considerable amounts of feeds can be wasted, which may affect digestibility of nutrients by pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that different watering options affect the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs.

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Effects of Phosphorus Level and Increasing Phytase Dose on Basal Endogenous Loss of Calcium and Balance of Phosphorus in Pigs Fed Diets Containing Phytate P at Commercial Levels

Nelson, M. E., Su A Lee, Y. Dersjant-Li, D. Velayudhan, J. C. Remus, H. H. Stein. 2022. Effects of Phosphorus Level and Increasing Phytase Dose on Basal Endogenous Loss of Calcium and Balance of Phosphorus in Pigs Fed Diets Containing Phytate P at Commercial Levels. J. Anim. Sci. 100(Suppl. 2): 165–166. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac064.282.

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Digestibility of Energy, Dry Matter, Protein, and Fat and Concentration of Metabolizable Energy in Sunflower Meal and Sunflower Expellers Fed to Growing Pigs

Ibagon, J. A., Su A Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility of Energy, Dry Matter, Protein, and Fat and Concentration of Metabolizable Energy in Sunflower Meal and Sunflower Expellers Fed to Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100 (Suppl. 2): 41–42. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac064.064. Link to Abstr.

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Effects of Increasing Dose of a Novel E. coli Phytase on Total Tract Digestibility of Minerals and Energy in Pigs

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Effects of Increasing Dose of a Novel E. coli Phytase on Total Tract Digestibility of Minerals and Energy in Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100(Suppl. 2): 36-37. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac064.059. Link to Abstr.

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Effects of dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus, and 1-alphahydroxycholecalciferol on digestibility, retention of calcium and phosphorus, and concentration of metabolizable energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Lee, Su A., and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Effects of dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus, and 1-alphahydroxycholecalciferol on digestibility, retention of calcium and phosphorus, and concentration of  metabolizable energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 102: 184–188 (2022) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0018. Link to full text.

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Effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3)and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) on serum bone biomarkers and calcium and phosphorus balance and concentrations on energy in diets without or with microbial phytase fed to sows in late gestation

Absorption of Ca and P by active transport in the small intestine is regulated by calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the hormones calcitonin and PTH. One-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) are vitamin D metabolites that may be added to diets for pigs. Because 1-α-OH-D3 is already hydroxylated at the 1-position, only the first hydroxylation in the liver at the 25-position is needed to convert the metabolite to calcitriol. Likewise, because the 25-OH-D3 is already hydroxylated at the 25-position, only the second hydroxylation in the kidney at the 1-position is needed if this metabolite is used. It is possible that supplementation of diets with 25-OH-D3 or 1-α-OH-D3 increases absorption and retention of Ca and P by increasing the conversion efficiency to calcitriol compared with the conversion of cholecalciferol to calcitriol. It is possible that the effects on Ca and P balance differ between 25-OH-D3 and 1-α-OH-D, but research to test this hypothesis has not been reported.

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Calcium and phosphorus in late gestation.

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Calcium and phosphorus in late gestation. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, January, 2022. Link to full text.

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Effects of increasing dietary protein on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in soybean meal and soy protein concentrate fed to growing pigs

Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) is affected by CP and AA concentrations in diets because of the different contributions of endogenous N and AA to the ileal digesta from pigs fed diets with different concentrations of CP. Because of the influence of dietary CP and AA on calculated values for AID, values for AID obtained in individual feed ingredients are not always additive in mixed diets if the concentration of CP and AA in the mixed diet is different from that of the ingredients. Therefore, values for standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, which are corrected for the basal ileal endogenous losses of CP and AA, are used in diet formulations to avoid the influence of endogenous AA on digestibility values, and SID values are, therefore, additive in mixed diets.

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Effects of phosphorus level and increasing phytase dose on basal endogenous loss of calcium and balance of phosphorus in pigs fed diets containing phytate P at commercial level

In plant-based feed ingredients there is a considerable amount of P bound to phytate, limiting the amount of P that is available for utilization, but inclusion of microbial phytase in pig diets increases the digestibility of P. The negatively charged phytate molecule can chelate Ca cations resulting in formation of insoluble Ca-phytate complexes. Degradation of phytate by microbial phytase may prevent formation of these non-digestible complexes, resulting in increased Ca digestibility. It is also possible that use of exogenous phytase reduces endogenous loss of Ca. If indeed the reduced endogenous loss of Ca is a result of degradation of phytate, it is expected that increased doses of dietary phytase will linearly reduce endogenous losses of Ca, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing dietary phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of Ca and increases digestibility of P in growing pigs.

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Digestibility of energy, dry matter, protein, and fat and concentration of metabolizable energy in sunflower meal and sunflower expellers fed to growing pigs

Sunflower meal (SFM) is a protein source that can be included in diets for pigs and other livestock species. In addition to providing amino acids, SFM also provide energy and other nutrients to diets, but because of the high concentration of fiber, SFM does not contain as much energy as other oilseed meals. The nutritive value of SFM depend on growing area, degree of de-hulling, and oil extraction process. Sunflower meal is obtained through a prepress-solvent extraction method, which yields a meal product with less than 3% fat. However, a double press procedure without solvent extraction may also be used to remove oil from the seeds, which results in generation of a co-product called sunflower expellers (SFE). Because the double-press procedure is less efficient in removing oil from the seeds, SFE contains between 6 and 10% oil. The concentration of fiber and protein also varies among different sources of SFM and SFE and is largely determined by the degree of de-hulling that takes place prior to oil extraction. Because the hulls are very high in fiber, there is a linear relationship between fiber concentration and the concentration of hulls in SFM and SFE, and there is a negative relationship between fiber and protein concentrations. However, data on the digestibility of nutrients and energy and concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in different sources of sunflower co-products are limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, crude protein, fat, and gross energy and concentrations of DE and ME in SFM fed to growing pigs. The second objective was to test the null hypothesis that there are no difference in the ATTD of nutrients and energy concentrations between SFM and SFE fed to growing pigs.

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