Lee

Effects of increasing phytase dose on total tract digestibility of minerals and energy in pigs

In most plant feed ingredients, the majority of P is bound to phytate, which reduces digestibility of P in pigs, and therefore, the concentration of digestible P in these ingredients is relatively low. Phytate is negatively charged in the intestinal tract and can bind both endogenous and dietary nutrients, which results in precipitation of non-digestible nutrient-phytate complexes. Therefore, it is possible that the use of exogenous phytase can also increase the digestibility of other nutrients than P. As an example, addition of exogenous phytase to diets also releases Ca from phytate, and thus, increases the digestibility of Ca. However, it has not been conclusively demonstrated that phytase also increases the digestibility of energy-generating nutrients and other minerals in diets fed to pigs and inconsistent results among experiments have been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that increasing phytase dose increases the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals and gross energy (GE) in corn and soybean meal-based diets fed to growing pigs.

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Comparative digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus in normal- and high-phytate diets fed to gestating sows and growing pigs

Lee, S. A., M. R. Bedford, H. H. Stein. 2021. Comparative digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus in normal- and high-phytate diets fed to gestating sows and growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 280 (2021) 115084. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.115084. Link to full text.

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Ca and P digestibility values aren’t accurate for formulating sow diets

Lee, Su A and H. H. Stein. 2021. Ca and P digestibility values aren’t accurate for formulating sow diets. Pork Magazine, On-line edition, Sep. 9, 2021. Link to full text.

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Addition of hydrochloric acid to collection bags or collection containers did not change basal endogenous losses or ileal digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Lee, Su A, Laia Blavi, Diego M. D. L. Navarro, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Addition of hydrochloric acid to collection bags or collection containers did not change basal endogenous losses or ileal digestibility of amino acid in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs. Animal Bioscience Vol. 34, No. 10:1632-1642 October 2021. doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0838.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in three sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs

Corn coproducts produced from the fuel ethanol or the wet milling industries may be used in diets for pigs. Different technologies are used to develop high protein corn co-products, but in addition to providing amino acids to the diets, high protein corn co-products also provide energy to the diets. The energy concentrations in corn protein may depend on the concentrations of fat, carbohydrates, and protein in sources of corn protein. Newly developed corn proteins contain 40 to 50% crude protein. There are, however, limited data on how differences in the chemical composition of different sources of corn protein influence the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) when fed to weanling pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and concentrations of DE and ME among 3 sources of corn protein when fed to weanling pigs.

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Sunflower expellers have greater ileal digestibility of amino acids than sunflower meal, but there are only minor variations among different sources of sunflower meal when fed to growing pigs

Ibagon, Jimena A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Sunflower expellers have greater ileal digestibility of amino acids than sunflower meal, but there are only minor variations among different sources of sunflower meal when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No.

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Growth performance and carcass quality are not different between pigs fed diets containing cold-fermented low-oil DDGS and pigs fed conventional DDGS, but pelleting improves gain to feed ratio regardless of source of DDGS

Rodriguez, Diego A.,  Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Growth performance and carcass quality are not different between pigs fed diets containing cold-fermented low-oil DDGS and pigs fed conventional DDGS, but pelleting improves gain to feed ratio regardless of source of DDGS. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 8, 1–8. doi:10.1093/jas/skab129.

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Reduced concentrations of limestone and monocalcium phosphate in diets without or with microbial phytase did not influence gastric pH, fecal score, or growth performance, but reduced bone ash and serum albumin in weanling pigs

Lagos, L. Vanessa, Su A Lee, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Reduced concentrations of limestone and monocalcium phosphate in diets without or with microbial phytase did not influence gastric pH, fecal score, or growth performance, but reduced bone ash and serum albumin in weanling pigs. Transl. Anim. Sci. 2021.5:1-10. doi.org/10.1093/tas/txab115.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in three sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs

Corn coproducts produced from the fuel ethanol or the wet milling industries may be used in diets fed to pigs. Newly developed corn proteins are high protein feed ingredients with approximately 40 to 50% crude protein (CP), and corn protein may be a great source of digestible amino acids (AA) in diets fed to weanling pigs. There are, however, limited data on the digestibility of AA in different sources of corn protein fed to weanling pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in 3 different sources of corn protein when fed to weanling pigs.

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Analyzed values for P and phytate in feed ingredients

Phytic acid is the main storage of P in plants, and most P in plant feed ingredients is bound in the phytate complex. Because pigs do not secrete phytase, an enzyme to hydrolyze inositol bonds in phytate, the utilization of P by pigs is very low. Addition of supplemental phytase to diets thus results in release of P and increases P utilization by pigs. However, all enzymes have a special recognition mechanism called specificity that works only with molecules that fit to active sites of the enzyme. Therefore, it is important to know how much of P is phytate-bound and how much of the P in a given diet is not phytate-bound.

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Quantities of ash, Ca, and P in metacarpals, metatarsals, and tibia are better correlated with total body bone ash in growing pigs than ash, Ca, and P in other bones

Lee, Su A, L. Vanessa Lagos, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Quantities of ash, Ca, and P in metacarpals, metatarsals, and tibia are better correlated with total body bone ash in growing pigs than ash, Ca, and P in other bones. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 6, 1–6. doi:10.1093/jas/skab149.

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Formulation of diets for pigs based on a ratio between digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus results in reduced excretion of calcium in urine without affecting retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with formulation based on values for total

Lagos, L. Vanessa, Su A Lee, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Formulation of diets for pigs based on a ratio between digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus results in reduced excretion of calcium in urine without affecting retention of calcium and phosphorus compared with formulation based on values for total calcium. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 5, 1–7. doi:10.1093/jas/skab138.

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Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids Is Greater in Sunflower Expellers Than in Sunflower Meal When Fed to Growing Pigs

Ibagon, J. A. S. A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids Is Greater in Sunflower Expellers Than in Sunflower Meal When Fed to Growing Pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 86–87. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.140. Link to Abstract.

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The Ash in Metacarpals, Metatarsals, and Tibia Is Better Correlated with Total Body Bone Ash Than the Ash in Other Bones of Growing Pigs

Lee, Su A., M. R. Bedford, and H. H. Stein. 2021. The Ash in Metacarpals, Metatarsals, and Tibia Is Better Correlated with Total Body Bone Ash Than the Ash in Other Bones of Growing Pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 99, Issue Supplement_1, May 2021, Pages 46–47. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.080. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Formulating diets based on digestible calcium instead of total calcium does not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics, but microbial phytase ameliorates bone resorption caused by low calcium in diets fed to pigs from 11 to 130 kg

Lagos, L. Vanessa, Su A Lee, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Formulating diets based on digestible calcium instead of total calcium does not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics, but microbial phytase ameliorates bone resorption caused by low calcium in diets fed to pigs from 11 to 130 kg. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 3, 1–11. doi:10.1093/jas/skab057.

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Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previously estimated

Lee, Su A, D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previouly estimated. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, March, 2021. Link to full text.

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Determination of net energy in U.S. soybean meal fed to group-housed growing pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is the major source of amino acids in diets for swine throughout the world. However, in addition to providing indispensable amino acids to diets, SBM also provides energy to the diets. Diets are often formulated based on the net energy (NE) in each individual ingredient using a linear programming computer software. Therefore, the NE for each ingredient is important for the value the ingredient is assigned in the formulation. However, the NE for SBM that is used by most feed formulators was generated many years ago, but results of recent research indicate that current U.S. SBM may provide more NE than previously estimated, which potentially results in an increased estimation of the value of SBM in diets for pigs. There is, therefore, a need for confirming or updating the NE value for SBM. As a consequence, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the NE in U.S. SBM fed to modern genotypes of pigs is greater than the value that is currently used in feed formulation.

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Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of phosphorus in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Cristobal Romero, Minoy A., Su A Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of phosphorus in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 187. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Ileal digestibility of amino acids in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Acosta Medellin, Jessica P., Su A Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in a new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 148. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Young Scholar Presentation: Digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in feed ingredients fed to gestating sows and growing pigs

Lee, Su A, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Young Scholar Presentation: Digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in feed ingredients fed to gestating sows and growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 98, Issue Supplement_3, November 2020, Page 111. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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