Lee

Effects of increasing dietary protein on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diets fed to growing pigs

Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) is affected by dietary AA levels because of different contributions of endogenous AA to the ileal digesta from pigs fed diets with different levels of AA. Because of the influence of dietary protein and AA on calculated values for AID, values for AID obtained in individual feed ingredients are not always additive in mixed diets. Therefore, values for standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA, which are corrected for the basal ileal endogenous losses of AA, are used in diet formulations to avoid the influence of endogenous AA on digestibility values, and SID values are, therefore, additive in mixed diets.

When the direct procedure is used to determine AA digestibility, diets containing cereal grains are sometimes formulated to contain AA below the requirement. In contrast, if the SID of oilseed meals or other protein-rich ingredients are determined, concentrations of AA may be at or above the requirement. Because the influence of the basal endogenous losses of AA is eliminated in the calculations of SID values, it is assumed that values for SID are not influenced by dietary concentrations of AA. However, to our knowledge this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified, but it is an important question because it may influence how diets used in digestibility experiments are formulated. Therefore, four experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the SID of AA by growing pigs is not influenced by dietary AA levels.

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Feed preference of weanling pigs fed diets containing extruded corn ground to different particle sizes

Extrusion results in increased digestibility of energy, which is primarily due to increased gelatinization of starch. Because this process improves flavor of cereal grains, it is known that extrusion improves palatability in pig diets. Particle size reduction in cereal grains results in an improved digestibility of nutrients due to increased surface area of grains, which subsequently increases the interaction with digestive enzymes. However, because grinding changes the textural traits of grains, the palatability of feeds is low and thus feed intake of pigs is often reduced.

The feed preference of pigs may be influenced by the characteristics of feed ingredients included in diets, but it is not known if different particle size of extruded corn affects the feed preference of weanling pigs. Therefore, the objective was to test the null hypothesis that there were no effects of reducing particle size of extruded corn on feed preference by weanling pigs.

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Is there a nutritional difference in full-fat soybeans fed to growing pigs?

Ruiz-Arias, N. C., S. A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2024. Is there a nutritional difference in full-fat soybeans fed to growing pigs? National Hog Farmer. On-line.

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Effects of microbial phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in feed phosphates fed to growing pigs

Lopez, Diego A., Su A. Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2022. Effects of microbial phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in feed phosphates fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Vol 100, Issue 12, skac350, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac350. Link to full text.

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Interactive effects of reducing particle size and extrusion on energy digestibility and concentrations of digestible energy and metabolizable energy in corn fed to young pigs

Particle size reduction in cereal grains often results in an improved digestibility of starch due to increased surface area of grains, which subsequently increases the interaction with digestive enzymes. Improvement in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) upon particle size reduction has also been demonstrated in corn and a number of other ingredients when fed to weanling or growing-finishing pigs.

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Influence of particle size and origin of field peas on apparent ileal digestibility of starch and amino acids and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids when fed to growing pigs

Ibagon, Jimena A., Su A. Lee, C. Martin Nyachoti, and Hans H. Stein. 2024. Influence of particle size and origin of field peas on apparent ileal digestibility of starch and amino acids and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids when fed to growing pigs. Translational Animal Science, 2024, 8, txae008. doi.org/10.1093/tas/txae008.

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Advantages of Higher Soybean Meal Diets for Pigs

Lee, S. A, and H. H. Stein. 2023. Advantages of Higher Soybean Meal Diets for Pigs. Proc. 22nd Annual Midwest Swine Nutrition Conf. Danville, IN, Sep. 7, 2023. Pages 41-46. Link to the full text.

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Effects of Microbial Phytase on Standardized Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Feed Phosphates Fed to Growing Pigs

Lopez Diaz, Diego A., Su A Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Effects of Microbial Phytase on Standardized Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Feed Phosphates Fed to Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci., Volume 101, Issue Supplement_2, November 2023, Pages 114–115, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.127. Link to full text.

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Effects of Different Protein Sources Containing Highly Digestible Phosphorus on the Basal Endogenous Loss of Phosphorus

Nelson, Megan E., Su A Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Effects of Different Protein Sources Containing Highly Digestible Phosphorus on the Basal Endogenous Loss of Phosphorus. J. Anim. Sci., Volume 101, Issue Supplement_2, November 2023, Pages 80–81. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.089. Link to full text.

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Factors affecting net energy values of diets fed to group housed and ad libitum fed growing pigs

Stein, Hans H., Cristhiam J. Munoz, and Su A Lee. 2023. Factors affecting net energy values of diets fed to group housed and ad libitum fed growing pigs. XXXVIII Curso de especializacion FEDNA. Pag 213 - 223. Link to full text.

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Effect of Low Protein Diets Fed to Weanling Pigs on Growth Performance, Fecal Score, and Carcass Characteristics

Cristobal, Minoy A., Su A. Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Effect of Low Protein Diets Fed to Weanling Pigs on Growth Performance, Fecal Score, and Carcass Characteristics. J. Anim. Sci., Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, Page 290, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.330. Link to abstract.

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Effects of Different Sources and Particle Sizes of Field Peas on Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and Starch by Growing Pigs

Ibagon, Jimena A., Su A Lee, Charles Martin Nyachoti, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Effects of Different Sources and Particle Sizes of Field Peas on Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and Starch by Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci., Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, November 2023, Pages 187–188, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.206. Link to abstract.

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Interactive Effects of Pelleting and Particle Size Reduction of Corn on Ileal Digestibility of Starch and Amino Acids in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to Pigs

Lee, Su A., Diego A. Rodriguez, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Interactive Effects of Pelleting and Particle Size Reduction of Corn on Ileal Digestibility of Starch and Amino Acids in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Volume 101, Issue Supplement, Pages 186–187, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.205. Link to abstract.

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Interactive Effects of Pelleting and Particle Size Reduction of Corn on net Energy and Digestibility of Nutrients in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to Group-Housed Pigs

Lee, Su A., Diego A. Rodriguez, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Interactive Effects of Pelleting and Particle Size Reduction of Corn on net Energy and Digestibility of Nutrients in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to Group-Housed Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, Pages 185–186, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.204. Link to abstract.

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Concentration of Net Energy in Corn without or with Microbial Phytase Fed to Group-Housed Pigs

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A Lee, Hans H. Stein. 2023. Concentration of Net Energy in Corn without or with Microbial Phytase Fed to Group-Housed Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Volume 101, Issue Supplement 2, Pages 151–152, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad341.169. Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of energy by gestating and lactating sows and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in diets containing pistachio shell powder or soybean hulls

California is a leading producer of pistachios in the United States and globally and it is estimated that annual production will reach 2.08 billion pounds in 2031. As a result, about 31.2 million pounds of shells will be produced after the nuts are processed for human consumption. Pistachio shells have been viewed as a waste product and are frequently disposed of using ecologically friendly practices. However, it is possible that pistachio shell powder can be used as a high fiber ingredient for swine. Specifically, gestating sows may benefit from the high fiber concentration in pistachio shell powder because this may increase satiety and reduce stress. However, at this time, there is no information about the nutritional value of pistachio shell powder when fed to sows. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in pistachio shell powder are not different from those in soybean hulls when fed to gestating sows. The second hypothesis was that the ATTD of GE and DE in pistachio shell powder are not different from those in soybean hulls when fed to lactating sows.

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Digestibility of calcium in calcium-containing ingredients and requirements for digestible calcium by growing pigs

Lee, Su A, L. Vanessa Lagos, Laura A. Merriman, and Hans H. Stein. 2023. Digestibility of calcium in calcium-containing ingredients and requirements for digestible calcium by growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 101, 1–13. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad328. Link to full text.

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Effects of source of calcium carbonate and microbial phytase on digestibility of calcium

It is important that the digestibility of Ca in Ca sources is known to formulate diets based on values for digestible Ca rather than total Ca. Only a small amount of the Ca required by pigs is provided by plant-based ingredients and supplementation of Ca from Ca phosphates and Ca carbonate, is usually required to meet the requirement by pigs. In addition, use of microbial phytase increases Ca digestibility in Ca carbonate, which is one of the major sources of Ca in pig diets.

Differences in Ca digestibility in 4 sources of Ca carbonate produced in the United States have been observed, but it is unknown if there are differences in the ATTD of Ca in calcium carbonate sources produced outside the United States. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that there are differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and in the response to microbial phytase among 20 sources of Ca carbonate obtained from different parts of the world.

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Pelleting of diets for pigs improves feed efficiency

Lee. S. A., and H. H. Stein. 2023. Pelleting of diets for pigs improves feed efficiency. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition. September 27, 2023.

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