Phosphorus digestibility

Effects of phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of P in copra expellers, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs

Almaguer, B. L., R. C. Sulabo, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Effects of phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of P in copra expellers, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):187 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Standardized total tract digestibility of P in dried fermentation biomass, Peptone 50, and P.E.P. 2 Plus fed to weanling pigs

Mathai, J. K., R. C. Sulabo, J. L. Usry, B. W. Ratliff, D. M. McKilligan, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Standardized total tract digestibility of P in dried fermentation biomass, Peptone 50, and P.E.P. 2 Plus fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):85 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and corn distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Baker, S. R., B. G. Kim, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and corn distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):120 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Standardized total tract digestibility of P in blood products fed to weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Standardized total tract digestibility of P in blood products fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):120 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Phosphorus and amino acid digestibility in fermented and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Phosphorus and amino acid digestibility in fermented and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):99 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on the standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and corn co-products

Corn contains approximately 0.26% phosphorus, but most of this phosphorus is bound to phytic acid, or phytate, and thus is not bioavailable to pigs because they lack the enzyme phytase. Corn-based diets can be supplemented with inorganic phosphorus to help meet pigs' phosphorus needs; however, rising costs of inorganic phosphorus makes this approach increasingly uneconomical. Helping pigs digest more of the phosphorus that naturally occurs in the diet could provide a cost-effective alternative to inorganic phosphorus supplementation while also helping to reduce the environmental burden of excreted phosphorus. An experiment was conducted to determine how adding graded levels of microbial phytase affected the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus in corn and corn co-products. From these data, regression equations were developed to predict the response to adding different levels of phytase to each ingredient.

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Concentration of dietary calcium supplied by calcium carbonate does not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium, but decreases digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs

Stein, H. H., O. Adeola, G. L. Cromwell, S. W. Kim, D. C. Mahan, and P. S. Miller. 2011. Concentration of dietary calcium supplied by calcium carbonate does not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium, but decreases digestibility of phosphorus by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2139-2144. Link to full text (.pdf)

Digestibility of phosphorus by weanling pigs of fermented and conventional soybean meal without and with exogenous phytase

The majority of phosphorus in conventional soybean meal is bound in the phytate complex. Pigs do not secrete the phytase enzyme, so phytate-bound phosphorus is not digested and is excreted in the feces. Not only does this deprive pigs of an essential nutrient, but excessive phosphorus excretion can contribute to environmental problems as well.

Addition of microbial phytase is one strategy for increasing the digestibility of phosphorus in soybean meal. Another potentially effective strategy is to feed fermented soybean meal.  Fermentation may result in hydrolysis of phytate and release of phytate-bound phosphorus, thus making more phosphorus available to the pig.

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Phosphorus digestibility and energy concentration of enzyme-treated and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Goebel, K. P., and H. H. Stein. 2011. Phosphorus digestibility and energy concentration of enzyme-treated and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:764–772. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Nutrient and Energy Utilization by Swine

Stein, H. H. 2010. Nutrient and energy utilization by swine. Pages 31-42 in Proc. 26th annual North Carolina Swine Nutrition conference, Nov. 10, 2010. Raleigh, NC. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in blood products fed to weanling pigs

Blood meal and spray dried plasma protein are often included in diets fed to weanling pigs, and blood products are considered excellent sources of protein. The objective of this research was to measure apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibililty (STTD) of phosphorus in spray dried animal plasma, porcine blood meal, and avian blood meal fed to weanling pigs. References such as the NRC typically provide relative bioavailability values for phosphorus rather than digestibility values. Relative bioavailability values, however, depend on the standard (e.g., monosodium phosphate or dicalcium phosphate) to which the availability is compared. Thus, these values are believed not to be additive in mixed diets. It is believed that STTD values are additive in mixed diets, and therefore will enable producers to formulate diets that accurately meet the phosphorus requirement of pigs without creating unneccesary excesses that are excreted in the manure.

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Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in milk products fed to weanling pigs

Kim, B. G., J. W. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2010. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in milk products fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):90 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in yeast products, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Kim, B. G. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in yeast products, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):86 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Phosphorus and energy digestibility in enzyme treated soybean meal

Goebel, K. P. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Phosphorus and energy digestibility in enzyme treated soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):86 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of formulating diets for weanling pigs on a standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P basis

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Effects of formulating diets for weanling pigs on a standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P basis. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):68 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of liquid and fermented liquid feeding on energy, dry matter, protein and phosphorus digestibility by growing pigs

Pedersen, C. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Effects of liquid and fermented liquid feeding on energy, dry matter, protein and phosphorus digestibility by growing pigs. Livest. Sci. 134:59-61. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of a novel phytase on phosphorus digestibility in corn-soybean meal diets fed to weanling and growing pigs

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Effects of a novel phytase on phosphorus digestibility in corn-soybean meal diets fed to weanling and growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 2):861 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of graded levels of phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and corn co-products

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Effects of graded levels of phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and corn co-products. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 2):378 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and the use of phytase to address digestibility issues in pigs

Stein, H. H. 2010. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and the use of phytase to address digestibility issues in pigs. In Proc. 46th Eastern Nutr. Conf., May 12-13, 2010, Guelph, Ontario. Link to full text (.pdf)

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