Amino acid digestibility

Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs

Navarro, D. M. D. L., N. W. Jaworski, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):105 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in dairy proteins compared with plant proteins

Mathai, J. K., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Amino acid digestibility in dairy proteins compared with plant proteins. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):104 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in high protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Liu, Y., N. W. Jaworski, O. J. Rojas, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in high protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 212:52-62. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of reducing the particle size of corn grain on the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on the digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn grain fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn grain on the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on the digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn grain fed to growing pigs. Livest. Sci. 181:187-193. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestibility of amino acids in a novel source of soy protein concentrate and in soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is a high quality source of protein in diets fed to pigs. However, soybean meal contains anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides, which decrease nutrient availability and limit the amount of soybean meal that can be fed in weanling pig diets.

Soy protein concentrate is produced by processing soybean meal to remove some nonprotein components, including the soluble carbohydrates. This leaves soy protein concentrate with a greater concentration of crude protein and amino acids than soybean meal. The presence of oligosaccharides in soybean meal has been shown to reduce the tolerance of young pigs to conventional soybean meal, and therefore, animal proteins rather than soybean meal is often used in diets for young pigs. However, if the oligosaccharides and other antinutritional factors can be removed from soybean meal, it is possible to use soybean meal in diets for young pigs instead of animal proteins.

Typically, an alcohol extraction process has been used to remove soluble carbohydrates from soybean meal to create soy protein concentrate. However, a new source of soy protein concentrate called Nutrivance (Midwest Ag Enterprises Inc., Marshall, MN) has recently been introduced. Nutrivance is produced using a process combining non-alcohol extraction and enzymatic treatment of soybean meal. The nutritional value of soy protein concentrate produced using this method has not been determined. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of amino acids in this new source of soy protein concentrate.

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Amino acid digestibility in rice co-products fed to growing pigs

Casas, G. A., J. A. S. Almeida, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Amino acid digestibility in rice co-products fed to growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 207:150-158. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect of Sal CURB on digestibility of energy and nutrients by growing pigs

Liu, Y. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effect of Sal CURB on digestibility of energy and nutrients by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. s3):855-856 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Concentrations of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in soybean meal from Argentina, Brazil, China, Thailand, and the United States fed to broilers

Sotak-Peper, K. M., R. C. Sulabo, C. M. Parsons, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Concentrations of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in soybean meal from Argentina, Brazil, China, Thailand, and the United States fed to broilers. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. s3):299 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Determination of amino acid digestibility in soybean meal from different regions of the United States and fed to pigs

Soybeans grown in the northern United States are exposed to fewer growing days and hours of sunlight than soybeans grown elsewhere in the U.S. As a result, soybeans grown in the northern U.S. fix less nitrogen, and have a lower concentration of crude protein, than other U.S. soybeans. However, the concentrations of particular amino acids, particularly indispensable amino acids, are more important for the purposes of diet formulation than the concentration of crude protein. The concentration of amino acids in soybeans grown in different parts of the U.S. has not been determined.

The amount of amino acids in soybean meal that are available to the pig also depends on digestibility, but no research has been conducted to compare the digestibility of amino acids among soybean meal produced in different regions of the U.S. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to compare the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids and the concentration of SID amino acids in soybean meal produced in different regions within the United States and fed to growing pigs.

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Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in high-protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Berrocoso, J. D., O. J. Rojas, Y. Liu, J. Shoulders, J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in high-protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93:2208-2217. Link to full text (.pdf)

Concentrations of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility in soybean meal from Argentina, Brazil, China, Thailand and the United States fed to broilers

The nutritional value of soybean meal from different sources may vary due to differences in processing techniques and environmental conditions such as growing areas, soil type, and variety of soybeans. The Philippines import soybean for livestock feed from many different countries. However, the nutritional quality of soybean meal from these different origins has not been compared. It is important for producers formulating diets in the Philippines to know whether the same values can be used in formulations for all sources of imported soybean meal. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to determine the concentrations of apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids by broilers fed soybean meal from Argentina, Brazil, China, Thailand, and the United States.

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Effect of Sal CURB® on digestibility of energy, amino acids, calcium, and phosphorus in growing pigs

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can be spread via contaminated feed. Treating PEDV-contaminated feed with formaldehyde has been shown to prevent infection in pigs that consume the feed. However, concerns have been raised about the effect of treatment with formaldehyde on the nutritional value of feedstuffs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding a formaldehyde-based feed disinfectant to the diet on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter, crude protein, and amino acids, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, gross energy (GE), calcium, and phosphorus in nursery pigs.

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Amino acid digestibility in rice coproducts fed to growing pigs

Casas, G. A., J. Almeida, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Amino acid digestibility in rice coproducts fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):136 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy, phosphorus, and amino acids in lemna protein concentrate fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy, phosphorus, and amino acids in lemna protein concentrate fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:5222-5229. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in corn and corn coproducts from the wet-milling industry fed to growing pigs

Liu, Y., M. Song, F. N. Almeida, S. L. Tilton, M. J. Cecava, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in corn and corn coproducts from the wet-milling industry fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4557-4565. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., R. C. Sulabo, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4540-4546. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in rice co-products fed to growing pigs

Global production of rice is third in terms of total tonnage after corn and wheat. Rice is grown to produce polished white rice for human consumption. However, harvested rice, called paddy rice or rough rice, needs to be dehulled, which results in production of brown rice. The outer brown bran layer of brown rice, known as rice bran, also needs to be removed before polished white rice is produced. Approximately 20% of the paddy rice is hulls and the bran fraction is 8 to 10%, so only 70% of the paddy rice will become polished rice. Rice bran is high in fiber, and also contains about 15% crude protein and 14 to 20% fat. Rice bran can be fed as full fat rice bran or defatted rice bran. During milling of the rice, some kernels may get broken and cannot be used for human consumption. These broken kernels are known as broken rice or brewers rice and may also be used in animal feeding. Broken rice is high in starch and contains little fat, fiber, or protein.

Both rice bran and broken rice may be fed to pigs, but these ingredients are poorly characterized in terms of nutritional value. An experiment was, therefore, conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in broken rice, two sources of full fat rice bran (FFRB), and defatted rice bran (DFRB) fed to growing pigs.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in processed soybean and rapeseed products fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is the most common source of protein in swine diets in the United States. However, conventional soybean meal contains antinutritional factors such as antigenic proteins, oligosaccharides, lectins, and trypsin inhibitors that limit its use in diets fed to weanling pigs. Methods of processing soybean meal to remove antinutritional factors have been developed. These include enzyme treatment, fermentation, and the removal of soluble carbohydrates.

Like soybean meal, rapeseed products are usually not fed to weanling pigs due to the presence of glucosinolates and relatively high concentrations of fiber in these products. Previous research has shown that fermentation of soybean meal can reduce antinutritional factors and fiber concentrations. An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and concentrations of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy in four sources of processed soybean products, conventional soybean meal, conventional 00-rapeseed expellers, and in a fermented mixture of co-products including 00-rapeseed expellers, wheat bran, potato peel, and soy molasses.

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Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. II. Concentrations and digestibility of amino acids

Liu, Y., R. C. Sulabo, T. E. Sauber, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. II. Concentrations and digestibility of amino acids. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):668 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in field peas, fish meal, corn, soybean meal, and soybean hulls

Mathai, J. K. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Amino acid digestibility in field peas, fish meal, corn, soybean meal, and soybean hulls. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):648 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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