Amino acid digestibility

Comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to sows and growing pigs

Results of experiments in Europe have indicated that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy and nutrients, as well as the concentration of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy, is greater in gestating sows fed close to their maintenance requirement than in growing pigs allowed ad libitum access to feed.

However, no data from North America for the comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in sows and growing pigs have been reported. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to compare the digestibility of energy and nutrients in sows and growing pigs. A second objective was to develop equations to predict digestibility of energy and nutrients in sows from digestibility values obtained in growing pigs.

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Amino acid digestibility in low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Curry, S. M., D. M. D. L. Navarro, F. N. Almeida, J. A. S. Almeida, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Amino acid digestibility in low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 5:27. Link to full text (.pdf)

Illinois soybean farmers can support the livestock industry

Stein, H. H. 2014. Illinois soybean farmers can support the livestock industry. Page 5 in Illinois Field & Bean, March 2014. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains

Cervantes-Pahm, S. K., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains. Brit. J. Nutr. 111:1663-1672. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility in processed soybean products, rapeseed expellers, and a fermented mixture of co-products fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is the most common source of protein in swine diets in the United States. However, conventional soybean meal contains antinutritional factors such as antigenic proteins, oligosaccharides, lectins, and trypsin inhibitors that limit its use in diets fed to weanling pigs. Methods of processing soybean meal to remove antinutritional factors have been developed. These include enzyme treatment, fermentation, and the removal of soluble carbohydrates.

Like soybean meal, rapeseed products are usually not fed to weanling pigs due to the presence of glucosinolates and relatively high concentrations of fiber in these products. Previous research has shown that fermentation of soybean meal can reduce antinutritional factors and fiber concentrations. It is possible that fermentation can make 00-rapeseed meals and 00-rapeseed expellers suitable for feeding to weanling pigs, but no research has been conducted to confirm this hypothesis. An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) by weanling pigs of crude protein and amino acids in four sources of processed soybean products, conventional soybean meal, conventional 00-rapeseed expellers, and in a fermented mixture of co-products including 00-rapeseed expellers, wheat bran, potato peel, and soy molasses.

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Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in heat-damaged sunflower meal and cottonseed meal

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in heat-damaged sunflower meal and cottonseed meal. J. Anim. Sci. 92:585-593. Link to full text (.pdf)

Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from high protein, low oligosaccharide, or conventional varieties of soybeans and fed to weanling pigs

Baker, K. M., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from high protein, low oligosaccharide, or conventional varieties of soybeans and fed to weanling pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 188:64-73. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of heat treatment on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in canola meal fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of heat treatment on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in canola meal fed to growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 187:44-52. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 4:44. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid and phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in hydrolyzed feather meal fed to growing pigs

Sulabo, R. C., L. I. Chiba, F. N. Almeida, S. D. Brotzge, R. L. Payne, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid and phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in hydrolyzed feather meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:5829-5837. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of phytase on amino acid and energy digestibility in corn–soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., A. A. Pahm, G. I. Petersen, N. R. Augspurger, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of phytase on amino acid and energy digestibility in corn–soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs. Prof. Anim. Sci. 29:693-700. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility in camelina products fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility in camelina products fed to growing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 93:335-343. Link to full text (.pdf)

Digestibility of amino acids in diets and ingredients fed to pigs and poultry

Stein, H. H. 2013. Digestibility of amino acids in diets and ingredients fed to pigs and poultry. 26th Annual PHILSAN Convention, Yapak, Boracay, Philippines, October 4, 2013. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on the digestibility of energy and nutrients and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs

Rojas, O. J., and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on the digestibility of energy and nutrients and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Proceedings of the 2013 Allen D. Leman Swine conference, St. Paul, Minnesota, September 14-17, 2013. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Concentration of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Concentration of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4397-4405. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Prediction of the concentration of standardized ileal digestible amino acids in distillers dried grains with solubles

Urriola, P. E., L. J. Johnston, H. H. Stein, and G. C. Shurson. 2013. Prediction of the concentration of standardized ileal digestible amino acids in distillers dried grains with solubles. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4389-4396. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

The production of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) involves a drying step in which temperature may reach 500°C or greater. The application of heat and moisture to feedstuffs results in the Maillard reaction, which reduces the concentration and digestibility of amino acids. Lysine's chemical structure makes it particularly susceptible to the Maillard reaction. However, during the acid hydrolysis step of amino acid analysis, some lysine is recovered from Maillard products, but this lysine cannot be utilized by the animals, and thus, the amount of digestible lysine in a sample may be overestimated. Therefore, methods other than simple lysine analysis must be used when assessing feed that may be heat damaged.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of heat damage on the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in corn DDGS fed to growing pigs. A second objective of the experiment was to develop regression equations to predict the concentration of standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids in DDGS.

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Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on energy, phosphorus, and amino acid by growing pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on energy, phosphorus, and amino acid by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 91(E-Suppl. 2):687 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Diurnal variation of amino acid digestibility in pigs

Kim, B. G. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Diurnal variation of amino acid digestibility in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(E-Suppl. 2):686 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen–soybean meal mixture, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen–soybean meal mixture, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:3220-3230. Link to full text (.pdf)

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