Amino acid digestibility

Amino acid digestibility of alternative animal protein sources fed to weanling pigs

Animal protein sources such as fish meal and protein plasma are often used in diets fed to weanling pigs because the amino acids in these sources are highly digestible and because animal protein sources do not contain the anti-nutritional factors present in soybean meal. However, the cost of fish meal has increased in recent years and there is, therefore, a need for less expensive alternatives.

Chicken meal and and poultry by-product meal are protein ingredients that have a concentration of amino acids similar to that of fish meal. Poultry by-product meal is produced from the offal of carcasses of slaughtered poultry and includes feet, necks, undeveloped eggs, and intestines. Chicken meal is prepared from clean flesh and skin of chickens without or with bone derived from the whole carcass of poultry. The quality of chicken meal and poultry by-product meal depends on the quality of the rendered parts to produce them. Ultrapro is produced from enzymatically hydrolyzed porcine intestines, and AV-E Digest is produced by enzymatically hydrolyzing whole spent hens and extruded egg albumins. Insufficient data exist on the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in these ingredients.  Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, and AV-E Digest when fed to weanling pigs and to compare these values with values obtained for soybean meal.

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Amino acid digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to finishing pigs

González-Vega, J. C. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Amino acid digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90:4391:4400. Link to full text (.pdf)

The nutritional quality of feed ingredients

Stein, H. H. 2012. The nutritional quality of feed ingredients. Pages 69-77 in Proceedings of the Chinese Swine Industry Symposium, Shanghai, October 24-26, 2012. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Aspects of amino acid digestibility in feed ingredients fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Aspects of amino acid digestibility in feed ingredients fed to pigs. Pages 33-34 in Abstracts of the 44th University of Nottingham Feed Conference, Nottingham, UK, June 27-28, 2012 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in hydrolyzed feather meal fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N., L. I. Chiba, S. D. Brotzge, R. L. Payne, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Amino acid digestibility in hydrolyzed feather meal fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):469 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in blood products fed to weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Amino acid digestibility in blood products fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):468-469 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in camelina seeds and camelina expellers fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Amino acid digestibility in camelina seeds and camelina expellers fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):467 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Energy, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility in Lemna protein concentrate, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Energy, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility in Lemna protein concentrate, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):467 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility and energy concentration in conventional, high protein, and low oligosaccharide varieties of full fat soybeans fed to growing pigs

Yoon, J. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Amino acid digestibility and energy concentration in conventional, high protein, and low oligosaccharide varieties of full fat soybeans fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 2):49 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Due to the increasing demand for protein for livestock feeding, the interest in using canola meal in diets fed to swine is increasing. Canola meal is a product of the rapeseed plant, an abundant oilseed crop grown in Canada, the Northern United States, and parts of Europe. The oil is extracted for use in cooking and agriculture, leaving a high-protein meal that can be used in livestock feeding. Although the concentration of protein and amino acids and the amino acid profile of canola meal is less desirable than that of soybean meal, its relatively low cost may make it an attractive option for producers. Recently, new varieties of canola that contain more protein and less fiber have been selected. The de-oiled meals of these varieties have a concentration of crude protein that is close to that of de-hulled soybean meal.  However, there is no information about the digestibility of amino acid in high protein canola meal when fed to pigs.

It has also been speculated that changes in the traditional pre-press solvent extraction oil removal procedure may improve the quality of canola meal. The traditional procedure involves use of heat to desolventise the de-oiled meal, but a new procedure allows for production of canola meal using a low-temperature procedure. There are, however, no comparative data between meals produced using the traditional high temperature procedure and meals produced using the low-temperature procedure.

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Amino acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles, liquid condensed solubles, pulse dried thin stillage, and syrup balls fed to growing pigs

Soares, J. A., H. H. Stein, V. Singh, G. S. Shurson, and J. E. Pettigrew. 2012. Amino acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles, liquid condensed solubles, pulse dried thin stillage, and syrup balls fed to growing pigs. J. Anim Sci. 90:1255-1261. Link to full text (.pdf)

Comparative amino acid digestibility in blood products fed to weanling pigs

The U.S. slaughter industry produces blood co-products that may be used in diets for nursery pigs because of the high concentration and quality of protein they contain. The quality of protein in blood products can differ based on the processing techniques used.  In particular, products which are heated to too high a temperature during processing can sustain heat damage to amino acids due to the Maillard reaction. Lysine is particularly susceptible to heat damage.

An experiment was performed to determine the comparative amino acid digestibility in five different blood products fed to weanling pigs. Three are spray-dried products, which are dried quickly at temperatures of up to 225˚C. Spray-dried animal blood (SDAB) is manufactured from whole blood containing an anticoagulant. Spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) is manufactured from blood which has had the plasma separated out by centrifugation. Spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) are the red blood cells left after plasma separation. In addition to the spray-dried products, two sources of blood meal were tested – one from an avian source (avian blood meal, or ABM) and one from a porcine source (porcine blood meal, or PBM). These blood meals were dried using drum driers instead of spraydriers.

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Comparative amino acid digestibility in feather meal fed to pigs

Hydrolyzed feather meal is a co-product of the rendering industry that can be used as a protein source in diets fed to pigs. However, the variability in quality and digestibility between different sources of hydrolyzed feather meal has limited its use in swine diets. An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent (AID) and the standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in four sources of hydrolyzed feather meal. Because blood is sometimes added to feather meal during processing, the experiment also evaluated the effects on crude protein and amino acid digestibility of the addition of blood to feather meal.

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Amino acid digestibility in Lemna Protein Concentrate fed to weanling pigs

Lemna Protein Concentrate is derived from the leaves of duckweed, one of several rapidly-growing aquatic plants of the genus Lemna. Duckweed has a number of advantages as a protein source. It is relatively inexpensive to produce and requires less growing area and fewer inputs than other plant protein sources such as soybean products. It also contains relatively little fiber, making it a highly digestible feed ingredient.

An experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of amino acids and crude protein in Lemna Protein Concentrate fed to weanling pigs and to compare these values to digestibility values obtained for soybean meal and fish meal.

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Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., G. I. Petersen, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:4109-4115. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal fed to pigs undergoes heat treatment to destroy trypsin inhibitors and other antinutritional factors that impair the digestion of protein and thus reduce performance. However, heat treatment can damage nutrients as well. In particular, the Maillard reaction reduces amino acid digestibility by combining amino acids with sugars to produce biologically unavailable compounds.

An experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of amino acids in pigs fed soybean meal that had been heat treated in varying ways and for varying times. Conventional soybean meal was divided into four batches. One batch was not heated; one was autoclaved at 125°C for 15 minutes; one was autoclaved at 125°C for 30 minutes; and the last one was oven dried at 125°C for 30 minutes. Ten growing barrows were fed a total of five different diets. The experimental diets contained 40% each of the four different soybean meals being tested. An N-free diet was also formulated and fed to measure the basal endogenous loss of protein and amino acids.

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Dietary soybean oil and choice white grease improve apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in swine diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles

Kil, D. Y. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Dietary soybean oil and choice white grease improve apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in swine diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles. Rev. Colomb. Cienc. Pecu. 24:248-253. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs

González-Vega, J. C., B. G. Kim, J. K. Htoo, A. Lemme, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:3617-3625. Link to full text (.pdf)

Concentration of energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients in fermented soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is a rich source of digestible amino acids for pigs. However, soybeans contain antinutritional factors such as antigenic proteins, oligosaccharides, lectins, and trypsin inhibitors that make soybeans and conventional soybean meal unsuitable for feeding to weanling pigs in great quantities. Therefore, animal protein is usually included in starter diets for pigs. Because soy protein is less expensive than the animal protein, strategies to reduce the antinutritional factors in soy products have been explored. Fermentation of soybean meal with bacteria such as Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus subtilis eliminates many antinutritional factors, and studies have shown that fermented soybean meal is well-tolerated by weanling pigs. However, there is a lack of data on the digestibility of energy and amino acids in fermented soybean meal. Two experiments were, therefore, conducted to measure the concentration of DE and ME and the digestibility of amino acids in fermented soybean meal and to compare these values to values obtained in conventional soybean meal and fish meal.

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Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn co-­products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., G. I. Petersen, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn co-­products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):441 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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