Amino acid digestibility

Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine co-product fed to weanling pigs

Because weanling pigs cannot properly digest soybean meal, animal proteins such as fish meal and spray-dried plasma protein are often used in starter diets. However, the cost of these ingredients has become prohibitive for many swine producers, and new sources of digestible protein for weanling pigs are being sought.

Researchers at the Stein Monogastric Nutrition Lab have been studying a co-product of the production of synthetic L-Threonine, which is used as a supplement in low-protein diets. Synthetic L-Threonine is produced by fermenting a carbohydrate substrate using  bacteria such as E. coli. Threonine is extracted from the fermentation broth. The leftover biomass and substrate have the potential to be used as a feed source, but little is known about its nutritional value. Two experiments were conducted to measure amino acid digestibility and energy concentration in a threonine co-product that is produced by drying this left-over biomass.

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Amino acid digestibility and energy concentration of copra expellers, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs

Copra and palm kernel co-products are commonly fed to ruminant animals in some parts of the world. However, very limited research has been reported on the use of these ingredients in swine diets. No values are listed in the NRC (1998) for copra expellers, palm kernel expellers, or palm kernel meal.

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Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates

Stein, H. H. 2011. Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates. In Proceedings of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians 42nd Annual Meeting. Phoenix, AZ. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Nutrient and Energy Utilization by Swine

Stein, H. H. 2010. Nutrient and energy utilization by swine. Pages 31-42 in Proc. 26th annual North Carolina Swine Nutrition conference, Nov. 10, 2010. Raleigh, NC. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Ileal digestibility of amino acids in conventional and low-Kunitz soybean products fed to weanling pigs

Goebel, K. P. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in conventional and low-Kunitz soybean products fed to weanling pigs. Asian-Austr. J. Anim. Sci. 24:88-95. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of full-fat soybeans and in soybean meal by weanling pigs

Baker, K. M., B. G. Kim., and H. H. Stein. 2010. Amino acid digestibility in conventional, high protein, or low oligosaccharide varieties of full-fat soybeans and in soybean meal by weanling pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 162:66-73. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs

González, J. C., B. G. Kim, A. Lemme, and H. H. Stein. 2010. Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 2):489 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in blood meal fed to weanling pigs

Dried blood meal is commonly used as a high-quality protein source in nursery pig diets. Growth studies have indicated that blood meal can be a better protein source than dried skim milk, fish meal, and soy protein concentrate.  However, the growth effects of blood meal vary across studies; this may be due to differences in protein quality.

Limited data exist on digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in blood meal produced from different species and with different drying methods.  Therefore, an experiment was conducted to measure apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in two sources of blood meal.

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Effect of dietary carbadox on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in weanling pigs

Stewart, L. L., B. G. Kim, B.R. Gramm, R.D. Nimmo, and H.H. Stein. 2010. Effect of dietary carbadox on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in weanling pigs. Am. J. Anim. Vet. Sci. 5:168-174. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Ileal digestibility of amino acids in conventional, fermented, and enzyme-treated soybean meal and in soy protein isolate, fish meal, and casein fed to weanling pigs

Cervantes-Pahm, S. F., and H. H. Stein. 2010. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in conventional, fermented, and enzyme treated soybean meal and in soy protein isolate, fishmeal, and casein fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci.  88:2674-2683. Link to full text (.pdf)

Digestibility of amino acids in novel soybean products

Raw soybeans contain antinutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors (TI) and lectins.  The production of soybean meal involves a heating step, which reduces these anti-nutritional factors. However, conventional soybean meal contains compounds which can cause digestive disturbances in weanling pigs. Soybean meal is therefore limited in pig starter diets. Other protein sources, such as fish meal, casein, and soy protein isolate, are used for young pigs.

Two new soybean products were recently introduced to the U.S. feed market.  Fermented soybean meal (FSBM) and enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM) are believed to have a lower concentration of antinutritional factors and a higher concentration of crude protein and amino acids than conventional soybean meal.  They are also believed to be better tolerated by young pigs. However, not much is known about the digestibility of the protein in these two products.

This experiment was conducted to compare the digestibility of amino acids in weanling pigs of FSBM, ESBM, conventional de-hulled soybean meal, fish meal, casein, and soy protein isolate.

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Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs

Urriola, P. E., and H. H. Stein. 2010. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1454-1462. Link to full text (.pdf)

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A novel source of high-protein distillers dried grains

Buhler, Inc. of Minneapolis, Minnesota has developed a new fractionation process to more efficiently produce ethanol from corn. In this process, the germ is removed from the corn grain and the degermed grain is passed through roller mills and aspirators to remove the bran. The endosperm is fermented to produce ethanol, and the rest of the grain is left as a co-product, referred to here as HP-DDGBuhler.

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Amino acid digestibility and energy concentration in a novel source of high-protein distillers dried grains and their effects on growth performance of pigs

Kim, B. G., G. I. Petersen, R. B. Hinson, G. L. Allee, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Amino acid digestibility and energy concentration in a novel source of high-protein distillers dried grains and their effects on growth performance of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87:4013-4021. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen undegraded protein estimated using a precision-fed rooster bioassay: I. Soybean meal and SoyPlus

Boucher, S. E., S. Calsamiglia, C. M. Parsons, H. H. Stein, M. D. Stern, P. S. Erickson, P. L. Utterback, and C. G. Schwab. 2009. Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen undegraded protein estimated using a precision-fed rooster bioassay: I. Soybean meal and SoyPlus. J. Dairy Sci. 92:4489-4498. Link to full text (.pdf)

Digestibility of amino acids in corn and corn co-products fed to growing pigs

The objective of this experiment was to measure the standardized ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in hominy feed, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal and to compare these values to the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids amino acids in corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Results showed that the digestibility of most amino acids were greater (P < 0.05) in hominy feed and in corn gluten meal than in the other ingredients, whereas the digestibility of most amino acids in corn gluten feed was lower (P < 0.05) than in the other ingredients.

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Amino acid digestibility in liquid and fermented liquid feed

Pedersen, C., and H. H. Stein. 2009. Amino acid digestibility in liquid and fermented liquid feed. Digestive Physiology in Pigs (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect of carbadox on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by nursery pigs

Stewart, L. L., B. G. Kim, B. R. Gramm, R. D. Nimmo, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Effect of carbadox on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):107 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility and energy concentration in full fat soybeans from conventional, high protein, or low oligosaccharide varieties and in soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Baker, K. M., and H. H. Stein. 2009. Amino acid digestibility and energy concentration in full fat soybeans from conventional, high protein, or low oligosaccharide varieties and in soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):94 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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