Metabolizable energy

Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in yeast products produced from the ethanol industry, and in brewers’ yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Kim, B. G, Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in yeast products produced from the ethanol industry, and in brewers’ yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:5476-5484. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy, phosphorus, and amino acids in lemna protein concentrate fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy, phosphorus, and amino acids in lemna protein concentrate fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:5222-5229. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in corn and corn coproducts from the wet-milling industry fed to growing pigs

Liu, Y., M. Song, F. N. Almeida, S. L. Tilton, M. J. Cecava, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in corn and corn coproducts from the wet-milling industry fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4557-4565. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., R. C. Sulabo, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4540-4546. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs

Liu, Y., M. Song, T. Maison, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4466-4477. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy digestibility in 23 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of the ethanol industry and is often used as an economical source of energy and protein in swine diets. Conventional DDGS contains approximately 27% crude protein, 10% fat, 9% acid detergent fiber (ADF), and 25% (NDF). The concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in conventional sources of DDGS are approximately 3,500 and 3,350 kcal/kg, respectively. However, there is significant variation in the way different plants produce DDGS. For example, in recent years ethanol plants have begun extracting oil from DDGS to sell to the biodiesel industry. This results in DDGS with its fat content reduced to approximately 6 to 9%, which may result in lower concentrations of DE and ME.

If pigs are fed diets containing decreased levels of DE and ME relative to conventional DDGS, a reduction in growth performance may result. This would make DDGS a less economical feedstuff. An experiment was conducted to determine the variability of DE and ME in DDGS produced in and around Illinois.

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Digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wheat bran fed to growing pigs

When evaluating the energy content of pig diets, producers and feed companies in the United States usually use the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) systems. However, these systems do not take into account the heat produced by the animals during digestion, and thus the energy lost by pigs in the process of digesting and metabolizing the feed. Pigs fed diets high in fiber have greater feed intake, larger gastrointestinal tracts, and increased hindgut fermentation relative to pigs fed diets containing less fiber. Therefore, they might be expected to have greater heat production as well. As a result, the DE and ME systems may overestimate the energy value of fibrous feed ingredients. Net energy (NE) takes heat production into account, and thus may be a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the pig.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing dietary fiber in diets fed to growing pigs will increase heat production and decrease net energy values.

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Effects of chemical, physical, or enzymatic treatments on concentration of DE and ME and on digestibility of energy, organic matter, and fiber in DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of the ethanol industry, is an affordable source of energy and protein in pig diets. DDGS contains more gross energy than corn, but the energy is less digestible because of the high concentration of insoluble fiber in DDGS. If the fiber in DDGS could be made more soluble with pretreatment, its feed value would be improved.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of physical, chemical, and enzymatic pretreatments on the concentrations of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy and on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy, organic matter, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral (NDF) detergent fiber.

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Digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wheat bran fed to growing pigs

Jaworski, N. W., D. Liu, D. Li, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wheat bran fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):224 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in two sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs

Jaworski, N. W., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in two sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):220 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to sows and growing pigs

Results of experiments in Europe have indicated that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy and nutrients, as well as the concentration of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy, is greater in gestating sows fed close to their maintenance requirement than in growing pigs allowed ad libitum access to feed.

However, no data from North America for the comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in sows and growing pigs have been reported. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to compare the digestibility of energy and nutrients in sows and growing pigs. A second objective was to develop equations to predict digestibility of energy and nutrients in sows from digestibility values obtained in growing pigs.

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Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable and net energy in soybean meal produced throughout the United States and fed to pigs

Sotak, K. M. and H. H. Stein. 2014. Concentrations of digestible and metabolizable and net energy in soybean meal produced throughout the United States and fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92(Suppl. 2):68-69 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in soybean meal produced in different areas of the United States and fed to pigs

One factor that affects the chemical composition of soybeans and soybean meal is where the beans were grown. For instance, soybeans grown in the northern United States contain less crude protein than soybeans grown further south. As a result, soybean meal produced from beans grown in the Northern United States often contain less crude protein than soybean meal produced from beans grown further south. However, less is known about how the concentrations of digestible (DE), metabolizable (ME), and net (NE) energy differs among meals produced from soybeans grown in different areas of the U.S. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the digestibility of energy and concentrations of DE, ME, and NE in soybean meal produced from soybeans grown in different areas of the U.S. and fed to growing pigs.

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Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from high protein, low oligosaccharide, or conventional varieties of soybeans and fed to weanling pigs

Baker, K. M., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from high protein, low oligosaccharide, or conventional varieties of soybeans and fed to weanling pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 188:64-73. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Comparison of two different in vivo models and an in vitro model for caloric determination of four novel fiber ingredients

Cervantes-Pahm, S., B. K. Knapp, B. G. Kim, Y. Liu, C. M. Parsons, G. C. Fahey, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Comparison of two different in vivo models and an in vitro model for caloric determination of four novel fiber ingredients. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:12374-12379. Link to full text (.pdf)

Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs

Rodríguez, D. A., R. C. Sulabo, J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 93:493-503. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid and phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in hydrolyzed feather meal fed to growing pigs

Sulabo, R. C., L. I. Chiba, F. N. Almeida, S. D. Brotzge, R. L. Payne, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid and phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in hydrolyzed feather meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:5829-5837. Link to full text (.pdf)

Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:5326-5335. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on the digestibility of energy and nutrients and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs

Rojas, O. J., and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on the digestibility of energy and nutrients and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Proceedings of the 2013 Allen D. Leman Swine conference, St. Paul, Minnesota, September 14-17, 2013. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy and phosphorus digestibility by weanling pigs of Lemna Protein Concentrate, fish meal, and soybean meal

Lemna Protein Concentrate (LPC) is derived from the leaves of duckweed, one of several rapidly-growing aquatic plants of the genus Lemna. LPC is produced by de-oiling and de-hydrating leaves and stems of the duckweed plant. Duckweed has a number of advantages as a protein source. It is relatively inexpensive to produce and requires less growing area and fewer inputs than other plant protein sources such as soybean products. In addition, LPC has a favorable amino acid profile for use in swine diets. No published data exist on the nutritional value of LPC as fed to pigs. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to determine the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and the digestibility of phosphorus in Lemna Protein Concentrate.

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