Metabolizable energy

Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, AV-E digest, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Protein sources of animal origin provide highly digestible protein in diets for weanling pigs. Chicken meal consists primarily of skin, flesh, and sometimes bones from processed birds. Poultry by-product meal contains offal from processed chickens, including  feet, necks, beaks, undeveloped eggs, and intestinal contents. AV-E digest consists of enzymatically hydrolyzed spent hens and extruded egg albumin, mixed with a soybean meal carrier. Ultrapro is produced from enzymatically hydrolyzed porcine intestines, which are used in the production of the drug heparin. There is a lack of data on the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in all of these ingredients, which limits their use in diets fed to weanling pigs.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, and AV-E digest, and to compare these values with soybean meal.

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The nutritional quality of feed ingredients

Stein, H. H. 2012. The nutritional quality of feed ingredients. Pages 69-77 in Proceedings of the Chinese Swine Industry Symposium, Shanghai, October 24-26, 2012. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect of fat concentration in distillers dried grains with solubles on concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles, or DDGS, is a co-product of the rapidly growing ethanol industry. DDGS has been increasingly used for swine diets because of its affordability and nutritive value. Corn DDGS is high in energy, amino acids, and digestible phosphorus.

In the last few years, more ethanol plants have started  to use centrifugation to extract oil from DDGS for use in the production of biodiesel. The resulting DDGS products contain less fat than conventional DDGS. Reduced-fat DDGS products would be expected to have decreased digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy concentrations compared with  conventional DDGS, but energy values for these products have not yet been reported.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of DE and ME in three sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) containing different fat concentrations. In addition, the effect of supplementing diets containing reduced-fat DDGS products with corn oil to increase DE and ME concentrations was determined.

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Digestible and metabolizable energy concentration in 4 sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Due to the increasing demand for protein for livestock feeding, the interest in using canola meal in diets fed to swine is increasing. Canola meal is a product of the rapeseed plant, an abundant oilseed crop grown in Canada, the Northern United States, and parts of Europe. Recently, new varieties of canola that contain more protein and less fiber than conventional canola have been selected. The de-oiled meals of these varieties have a concentration of crude protein that is close to that of de-hulled soybean meal.

It has been speculated that changes in the traditional pre-press solvent extraction oil removal procedure may improve the quality of canola meal. The traditional procedure involves use of heat to desolventise the de-oiled meal, but a new procedure allows for production of canola meal using a low-temperature procedure.

There is no information about the digestibility of energy in high protein canola meal. There also is no data comparing the digestibility of energy in canola meal processed at low temperatures versus high temperatures. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to compare the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in high protein, high-temperature-processed, low-temperature-processed, and commercial canola meals, and to compare these values with the DE and ME in corn and soybean meal.

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Energy concentration in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is a high quality source of protein for swine diets. Due to the growth in global production of pigs and poultry, demand for soybeans is increasing rapidly, outpacing production. Therefore, other sources of plant protein are sometimes used in diets to supply indispensable AA to the animals.

The most abundant oilseeds produced in the world, aside from soybeans, are cottonseed, canola seed (rapeseed), and sunflower seed. These oilseeds may be fed as de-oiled meals, or the full fat seeds can be fed to increase the energy concentration of the diet.

There are no recent data on energy digestibility in canola, cotton, and sunflower products. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to measure the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in canola seeds (CS), canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seeds (SFS), sunflower meal (SFM), and dehulled sunflower meal (SFM-DH), and to compare these values to the DE and ME in soybean meal (SBM).

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

With the prices of cereal grains rising, opportunities to reduce feed costs by using alternative ingredients are being explored. One source of alternative feed ingredients is co-products from the human food industries. However, little information has been published on the digestibility of energy in these ingredients. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable in hominy feed, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, and to compare these values with values obtained for corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

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Short Communication: Enhanced distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy than DDGS when fed to growing and finishing pigs

Soares, J. A., V. Singh, H. H. Stein, R. Srinavasan, and J. E. Pettigrew. 2011. Short Communication: Enhanced distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy than DDGS when fed to growing and finishing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 91:1-5. Link to full text (.pdf)

Concentration of DE and ME in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Concentration of DE and ME in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):333 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Metabolizable energy and digestibility of carbohydrates in cereal grains fed to growing pigs

Cervantes-Pahm, S. K. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Metabolizable energy and digestibility of carbohydrates in cereal grains fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):332-333 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine co-product fed to weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., R. C. Sulabo, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine co-product fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):63 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to broiler chicks

Baker, K. M., P. L. Utterback, C. M. Parsons, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 90:390-395. Link to full text (.pdf)

North American Swine Energy System: Introduction

Pettigrew, J. E, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, H. H. Stein, D. Y. Kil, D. B. Beaulieu, and R. H. Hinson. 2009. North American Swine Energy System: Introduction. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):97 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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A novel approach for estimating DE and ME values for corn

Carr, S. N., H. H. Stein, R. A. Easter, and N. Bajjalieh. 1995. A novel approach for estimating DE and ME values for corn. J. Anim. Sci. 73(Suppl. 1):79 (Abstr.)

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