Metabolizable energy

Concentration of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Concentration of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4397-4405. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Feed energy evaluation for growing pigs. (Invited Review)

Kil, D. Y., B. G. Kim, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Feed energy evaluation for growing pigs. (Invited Review). Asian-Austr. J. Anim. Sci. 26: 1205-1217. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy concentration of high-protein, low-oligosaccharide, and conventional full fat de-hulled soybeans fed to growing pigs

Yoon, J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Energy concentration of high-protein, low-oligosaccharide, and conventional full fat de-hulled soybeans fed to growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 184:105-109. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on energy, phosphorus, and amino acid by growing pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on energy, phosphorus, and amino acid by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 91(E-Suppl. 2):687 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Digestible and metabolizable energy concentration in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs

Maison, T. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Digestible and metabolizable energy concentration in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(E-Suppl. 2):676 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Energy concentrations in distillers dried grains with solubles containing different fat concentrations and the effect of corn oil addition on energy concentrations in diets fed to growing pigs

Kil, D. Y., J. W. Lee, D. M. D. L. Navarro, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Energy concentrations in distillers dried grains with solubles containing different fat concentrations and the effect of corn oil addition on energy concentrations in diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 91(E-Suppl. 2):582-583 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen–soybean meal mixture, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen–soybean meal mixture, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:3220-3230. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Nutritional value of dried fermentation biomass, hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Sulabo, R. C., J. K. Mathai, J. L. Usry, B. W. Ratliff, D. M. McKilligan, J. D. Moline, G. Xu, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Nutritional value of dried fermentation biomass, hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2802-2811. Link to full text (.pdf)

Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, AV-E Digest, and conventional soybean meal fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, AV-E Digest, and conventional soybean meal fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):26 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs

Sulabo, R. C., Ju, W. S., and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:1391-1399. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy in high protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Canola meal is the defatted meal that remains after oil has been extracted from the seeds of the rapeseed plant, Brassica napus.  Canola meal is high in crude protein and amino acids relative to most plant protein sources, and the amino acids in canola meal are well digested by pigs. However, it is also relatively high in fiber, which reduces energy digestibility and digestible energy concentration. New varieties of Brassica napus with a thinner seed coat have been hybridized, which contain less fiber and more protein than conventional rapeseed. The meal produced from these varieties is known as high protein canola meal. No data exist for the digestibility of energy in this source of high protein canola mealwhen fed to pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in two sources of high protein canola meal (CM-HP1 and CM-HP2) fed to growing pigs, and to compare these values with values for conventional canola meal (CM-CV) and soybean meal (SBM).

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Effect on phosphorous and energy digestibility of reducing the particle size of corn fed to growing pigs

Research has shown that grinding cereal grains in diets fed to pigs into smaller particle sizes improves growth performance. Feed ground to smaller particle sizes has more surface area on which digestive enzymes can work, so digestibility of energy and nutrients that are enzymatically digested may also  improved. Generating specific data on energy and nutrient digestibility will help determine the optimal particle size for feed ingredients.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and to measure the apparent (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus by growing pigs fed diets containing corn that was ground to different particle sizes.

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, AV-E digest, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Protein sources of animal origin provide highly digestible protein in diets for weanling pigs. Chicken meal consists primarily of skin, flesh, and sometimes bones from processed birds. Poultry by-product meal contains offal from processed chickens, including  feet, necks, beaks, undeveloped eggs, and intestinal contents. AV-E digest consists of enzymatically hydrolyzed spent hens and extruded egg albumin, mixed with a soybean meal carrier. Ultrapro is produced from enzymatically hydrolyzed porcine intestines, which are used in the production of the drug heparin. There is a lack of data on the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in all of these ingredients, which limits their use in diets fed to weanling pigs.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in chicken meal, poultry by-product meal, Ultrapro, and AV-E digest, and to compare these values with soybean meal.

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The nutritional quality of feed ingredients

Stein, H. H. 2012. The nutritional quality of feed ingredients. Pages 69-77 in Proceedings of the Chinese Swine Industry Symposium, Shanghai, October 24-26, 2012. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect of fat concentration in distillers dried grains with solubles on concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles, or DDGS, is a co-product of the rapidly growing ethanol industry. DDGS has been increasingly used for swine diets because of its affordability and nutritive value. Corn DDGS is high in energy, amino acids, and digestible phosphorus.

In the last few years, more ethanol plants have started  to use centrifugation to extract oil from DDGS for use in the production of biodiesel. The resulting DDGS products contain less fat than conventional DDGS. Reduced-fat DDGS products would be expected to have decreased digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy concentrations compared with  conventional DDGS, but energy values for these products have not yet been reported.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of DE and ME in three sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) containing different fat concentrations. In addition, the effect of supplementing diets containing reduced-fat DDGS products with corn oil to increase DE and ME concentrations was determined.

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Digestible and metabolizable energy concentration in 4 sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Due to the increasing demand for protein for livestock feeding, the interest in using canola meal in diets fed to swine is increasing. Canola meal is a product of the rapeseed plant, an abundant oilseed crop grown in Canada, the Northern United States, and parts of Europe. Recently, new varieties of canola that contain more protein and less fiber than conventional canola have been selected. The de-oiled meals of these varieties have a concentration of crude protein that is close to that of de-hulled soybean meal.

It has been speculated that changes in the traditional pre-press solvent extraction oil removal procedure may improve the quality of canola meal. The traditional procedure involves use of heat to desolventise the de-oiled meal, but a new procedure allows for production of canola meal using a low-temperature procedure.

There is no information about the digestibility of energy in high protein canola meal. There also is no data comparing the digestibility of energy in canola meal processed at low temperatures versus high temperatures. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to compare the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in high protein, high-temperature-processed, low-temperature-processed, and commercial canola meals, and to compare these values with the DE and ME in corn and soybean meal.

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Energy concentration in canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal is a high quality source of protein for swine diets. Due to the growth in global production of pigs and poultry, demand for soybeans is increasing rapidly, outpacing production. Therefore, other sources of plant protein are sometimes used in diets to supply indispensable AA to the animals.

The most abundant oilseeds produced in the world, aside from soybeans, are cottonseed, canola seed (rapeseed), and sunflower seed. These oilseeds may be fed as de-oiled meals, or the full fat seeds can be fed to increase the energy concentration of the diet.

There are no recent data on energy digestibility in canola, cotton, and sunflower products. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to measure the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in canola seeds (CS), canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seeds (SFS), sunflower meal (SFM), and dehulled sunflower meal (SFM-DH), and to compare these values to the DE and ME in soybean meal (SBM).

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

With the prices of cereal grains rising, opportunities to reduce feed costs by using alternative ingredients are being explored. One source of alternative feed ingredients is co-products from the human food industries. However, little information has been published on the digestibility of energy in these ingredients. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable in hominy feed, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, and to compare these values with values obtained for corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

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Short Communication: Enhanced distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy than DDGS when fed to growing and finishing pigs

Soares, J. A., V. Singh, H. H. Stein, R. Srinavasan, and J. E. Pettigrew. 2011. Short Communication: Enhanced distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy than DDGS when fed to growing and finishing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 91:1-5. Link to full text (.pdf)

Concentration of DE and ME in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Concentration of DE and ME in fermented soybean meal, conventional soybean meal, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):333 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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