Pigs

Effects of dietary isoleucine and valine supplementation to excess or low leucine diets on nitrogen balance and metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in growing pigs

Leucine is a key regulator that stimulates catabolism of branched-chain AA (BCAA; i.e., Leu, Ile, and Val) in skeletal muscle and liver. If diets fed to pigs contain excess Leu, catabolism of all 3 BCAA may increase because of the stimulating effect of the Leu metabolite, α-keto isocaproate, on the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, which is responsible for degradation of the 3 branched-chain α-keto acids that originate from metabolism of the 3 BCAA. Serum Ile and Val concentrations were reduced by excess dietary Leu in growing pigs, and high dietary Leu reduces feed intake and growth performance in pigs, which may be a result of the imbalanced supply of BCAA that result from increased metabolism of Val and Ile. Recent data confirmed that excess dietary Leu reduced growth performance and tended to reduce protein synthesis, which is likely a result of reduced availability of Val and Ile.

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Effect of feed sweetener and feed flavor on growth performance of weanling pigs

At weaning, pigs have to cope with abrupt withdrawal of sow milk, and this often causes appetite suppression due to marked changes in diet form and composition. Feed flavor and sweetener are believed to increase feed palatability, and subsequently improve feed intake, average daily gain, and immune response of weanling pigs. However, data that confirm this hypothesis are limited. Therefore, it was the objective of this experiment to test the hypothesis that supplementation of feed flavor and feed sweetener in diets fed to weanling pigs improve growth performance.

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Effect of NexPro (high-protein corn) on growth performance of weanling pigs

NexPro is a high protein feed ingredient that is generated via downstream processing of co-products from the dry-grind ethanol industry. Results from digestibility experiments indicate that NexPro contribute considerable quantities of amino acids and energy to diets fed to pigs, but there are no data demonstrating effects on growth performance of including NexPro in diets for weanling pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that NexPro may replace other high-value protein sources in diets for weanling pigs without impacting pig growth performance.

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Effects of copper hydroxychloride and dietary fiber on intestinal permeability, growth performance, and blood characteristics of nursery pigs

Espinosa, C. D., R. S. Fry, M. E. Kocher, H. H. Stein. 2020. Effects of copper hydroxychloride and dietary fiber on intestinal permeability, growth performance, and blood characteristics of nursery pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 263 (2020) 114447. Link to full text.

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Tryptophan can partially overcome negative effects of leucine in pig diets

Kwon, W. B., and H. H. Stein. 2020. Tryptophan can partially overcome negative effects of leucine in pig diets. National Hog Farmer, Online edition. Jan.

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Effect of increasing levels of Sylpro yeast on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs

Sylpro enhanced torula yeast is a high protein feed ingredient derived from forestry by-products, and results from digestibility experiments indicate that Sylpro yeast may be a valuable source of energy and digestible amino acids in diets fed to weanling pigs. As a consequence, it is believed that Sylpro yeast may be included in diets for weanling pigs at the expense of fish meal and other animal protein sources. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing levels of Sylpro yeast improve growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

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Effects of copper hydroxychloride on growth performance and abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism of growing pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine D., R. Scott Fry, Matthew E. Kocher, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects of copper hydroxychloride on growth performance and abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism of growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skz369. Link to full text. 

Inclusion of the direct-fed microbial Clostridium butyricum in diets for weanling pigs increases growth performance and tends to increase villus height and crypt depth, but does not change intestinal microbial abundance

Casas, Gloria A., Laia Blavi, Tzu-Wen L. Cross, Anne H. Lee, Kelly S. Swanson, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Inclusion of the direct-fed microbial Clostridium butyricum in diets for weanling pigs increases growth performance and tends to increase villus height and crypt depth, but does not change intestinal microbial abundance. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1–12. doi:10.1093/jas/skz372.

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Torula yeast has greater digestibility of amino acids and phosphorus, but not energy, compared with a commercial source of fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Lagos, Vanessa L., Hans H. Stein. 2020. Torula yeast has greater digestibility of amino acids and phosphorus, but not energy, compared with a commercial source of fish meal fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1-9. doi:10.1093/jas/skz375. Link to full text.

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Effects of super dosing 4 different sources of phytase on amino acid digestibility

Dietary phytate may bind to proteins from feed ingredients by making indigestible nutrient-complexes. Therefore, it is possible that adding exogenous phytase to the diets increases digestibility of amino acids (AA). However, results of experiments in which microbial phytase has been added to diets fed to pigs have not consistently demonstrated increased ileal digestibility of AA. It is, however, possible that is because the dose of phytase was too low to obtain a positive effect on AA digestibility and that if greater doses were used, a positive response would be obtained. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that super dosing four different sources of commercially available exogenous phytase increases the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and AA in a corn-soybean meal (SBM) based diet fed to growing pigs.

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Effects of intrinsic phytase from hybrid rye on P and Ca digestibility in a corn-soybean meal diet

Rye contains considerable quantities of intrinsic phytase and the presence of phytase in rye may result in an increased P digestibility in pigs without using exogenous phytase. It is possible that the endogenous phytase in rye also increases P digestibility in other plant feed ingredients by releasing P from the phytate. However, to our knowledge, no data demonstrating this effect have been published. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that inclusion of rye in diets containing corn and soybean meal (SBM) without or with microbial phytase improves the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca and thus the ATTD of P is not additive in the mixed diet.

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Digestibility of energy, and total dietary fiber, and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean expeller and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

When soybeans are crushed, the oil may be solvent extracted and the resulting defatted soybeans are known as soybean meal (SBM). However, the oil may also be mechanically expelled from the beans and the defatted soybeans resulting from this procedure is an ingredient known as soybean expellers. The expelling procedure is less efficient in removing oil from the beans and soybean expellers, therefore, contain more residual oil than SBM. Soybean expellers can be produced using different technologies, and a new procedure involving a patented high shear dry extrusion procedure was recently developed (Insta-Pro International, Des Moines, IA). There are however, no data for the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE and total dietary fiber (TDF) and DE and ME concentrations in the soybean expellers that are produced from this procedure. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the ATTD of GE and TDF and concentrations of DE and ME are greater in soybean expellers than in SBM when fed to growing pigs.

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Effects of copper hydroxychloride and distillers dried grains with solubles on intestinal microbial concentration and apparent ileal and total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients by growing pigs

Espinosa, Ch. D, R. Scott Fry, Matthew E. Kocher, Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of copper hydroxychloride and distillers dried grains with solubles on intestinal microbial concentration and apparent ileal and total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients by growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2019, 4904–4911.

Effects of copper hydroxychloride and choice white grease on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs kept at normal ambient temperature or under heat stress

Espinosa, C. D., R. S. Fry, J. Usry, and H. H. Stein. 2019. Effects of copper hydroxychloride and choice white grease on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs kept at normal ambient temperature or under heat stress. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol.256:114257. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2019.114257. Link to full text.

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Multi vs. single application of enzymes to degrade fibre in diets for pigs

Stein, H. H. 2019. Multi vs. single application of enzymes to degrade fibre in diets for pigs. In (eds. G. Gonzalez-Ortiz, M. R. Bedford, K. E. Back Knudsen, C. M. Courtin, and H. L. Classen): The value of fibre – engaging the second brain for animal nutrition. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

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Bioavailability of valine in spray-dried L-valine biomass is not different from that in crystalline L-valine when fed to weanling pigs

Oliveira, Maryane S. F., John K. Htoo, J. Caroline González-Vega, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Bioavailability of valine in spray-dried L-valine biomass is not different from that in crystalline L-valine when fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2019, 4227–4234. Link to full text.

Excess dietary leucine in diets for growing pigs reduces growth performance, biological value of protein, protein retention, and serotonin synthesis

Kwon, Woong B., Kevin J. Touchette, Aude Simongiovanni, Kostas Syriopoulos, Anna Wessels, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Excess dietary leucine in diets for growing pigs reduces growth performance, biological value of protein, protein retention, and serotonin synthesis. Journal of Animal Science, 2019, 4282–4292. Link to full text.

Digestibility of amino acids is greater in soybean expellers than in soybean meal when fed to growing pigs

When soybeans are crushed, the oil may be solvent extracted and the resulting defatted soybeans are known as soybean meal (SBM). However, the oil may also be mechanically expelled from the beans and the defatted soybeans resulting from this procedure is an ingredient known as soybean expellers. The expelling procedure is less efficient in removing oil from the beans and soybean expellers, therefore, contain more residual oil than SBM. Soybean expellers can be produced using different technologies, and a new procedure involving a patented high shear dry extrusion procedure was recently developed (Insta-Pro International, Des Moines, IA). There are however, no data for the digestibility of amino acids (AA) in the soybean expellers that are produced from this procedure. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and AAis greater in soybean expellers than in SBM when fed to growing pigs.

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Alternative nutrition strategies to control post-weaning diarrhea

Cristobal M., Su A Lee, L. Blavi and H. H. Stein. 2019. Alternative nutrition strategies to control post-weaning diarrhea. Farm Journals Pork. October 2019. Link to full text.

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Interaction between feed formulation and feed technology in diets fed to pigs

Stein H. H. 2019. Interaction between feed formulation and feed technology in diets fed to pigs. Book of Abstracts. In: 1st International Feed Technology Congress, Cologne, Germany. p. 21. (Abstr.). Link to Abstract.

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