Ibagon

Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids is not affected by reducing particle sizes or different origins of field peas fed to growing pigs

Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) have been cultivated for centuries for human consumption, due to the high nutritional quality of pea protein. However, during the last years, increasing demand for field peas for livestock feeding has developed a market in Canada, Europe, and the U.S. Therefore, as is the case with some feed ingredients, differences in soil, varieties, agronomic practices, and growing method may change the nutritional characteristics of the peas as well as the digestibility of nutrients. Besides that, differences in the particle size of field peas may change the digestibility of nutrients. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in field peas is affected by the particle size of the field peas and the region where the field peas were grown.

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Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in three different sources of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) with different particle sizes fed to weanling pigs

Field peas have been produced mainly for human consumption, but lastly, the industry has been included in diets fed to livestock due to its content of starch and protein. In diets for swine, only peas that are harvested at maturity are used. Almost 80% of P in non-oilseed legumes is bound to phytate, and pigs do not synthesize an adequate amount of endogenous phytate to liberate the P bound to phytate. Therefore, the digestibility of P in field peas is relatively low. Values for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in field peas have been reported, but there are no comparative values for the ATTD and STTD of P among different varieties of field peas at different particle sizes. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in the ATTD and the STTD of P among different sources of field peas fed to young pigs and the second hypothesis was that there is a linear increase in the ATTD and STTD of P as the particle size of field peas increases.

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Effect of microbial phytase on digestibility of phosphorus in seven sources of sunflower meal fed to growing pigs

The majority of P in oilseed co-products is bound to phytate; however, pigs do not synthesize adequate amount of endogenous phytate to liberate the P bound to phytate and the digestibility of P in sunflower meal, therefore is low. Values for ATTD and STTD of P in sunflower meal (SFM) without and with phytase have been reported, but there are no comparative values for the ATTD and STTD of P in sunflower co-products produced in different parts of the world. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the ATTD and the STTD of P in different sources of sunflower co-products, and to test the hypothesis that regardless of source, microbial phytase increases the digestibility of P in sunflower co-products fed to young pigs.

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Digestibility of starch, crude protein and amino acids in three sources of field peas ground at two different particle sizes fed to growing pigs

Market opportunities for field peas (Pisum sativum L.) have rapidly increased for livestock feed and human food, due of the high nutritional quality of pea protein. However, as is the case with some feed ingredients, differences in soil, varieties, agronomic practices and growing method may change the nutritional characteristics of the peas as well as digestibility of nutrients. In addition, it is possible that differences in the particle size of field peas change the digestibility of energy and nutrients as has been reported for other ingredients. However, information about the effects of particle size of peas on digestibility of starch and amino acids (AA) are limited. Additionally, there is limited research to compare the digestibility of AA among field peas produced in different regions of the U.S. and Canada. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein and starch, and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in field peas may be affected by the particle size of the field peas and the region where the field peas were grown.

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Digestibility of Energy, Dry Matter, Protein, and Fat and Concentration of Metabolizable Energy in Sunflower Meal and Sunflower Expellers Fed to Growing Pigs

Ibagon, J. A., Su A Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility of Energy, Dry Matter, Protein, and Fat and Concentration of Metabolizable Energy in Sunflower Meal and Sunflower Expellers Fed to Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100 (Suppl. 2): 41–42. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac064.064. Link to Abstr.

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Digestibility of energy, dry matter, protein, and fat and concentration of metabolizable energy in sunflower meal and sunflower expellers fed to growing pigs

Sunflower meal (SFM) is a protein source that can be included in diets for pigs and other livestock species. In addition to providing amino acids, SFM also provide energy and other nutrients to diets, but because of the high concentration of fiber, SFM does not contain as much energy as other oilseed meals. The nutritive value of SFM depend on growing area, degree of de-hulling, and oil extraction process. Sunflower meal is obtained through a prepress-solvent extraction method, which yields a meal product with less than 3% fat. However, a double press procedure without solvent extraction may also be used to remove oil from the seeds, which results in generation of a co-product called sunflower expellers (SFE). Because the double-press procedure is less efficient in removing oil from the seeds, SFE contains between 6 and 10% oil. The concentration of fiber and protein also varies among different sources of SFM and SFE and is largely determined by the degree of de-hulling that takes place prior to oil extraction. Because the hulls are very high in fiber, there is a linear relationship between fiber concentration and the concentration of hulls in SFM and SFE, and there is a negative relationship between fiber and protein concentrations. However, data on the digestibility of nutrients and energy and concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in different sources of sunflower co-products are limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, crude protein, fat, and gross energy and concentrations of DE and ME in SFM fed to growing pigs. The second objective was to test the null hypothesis that there are no difference in the ATTD of nutrients and energy concentrations between SFM and SFE fed to growing pigs.

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Sunflower expellers have greater ileal digestibility of amino acids than sunflower meal, but there are only minor variations among different sources of sunflower meal when fed to growing pigs

Ibagon, Jimena A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Sunflower expellers have greater ileal digestibility of amino acids than sunflower meal, but there are only minor variations among different sources of sunflower meal when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No.

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Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids Is Greater in Sunflower Expellers Than in Sunflower Meal When Fed to Growing Pigs

Ibagon, J. A. S. A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids Is Greater in Sunflower Expellers Than in Sunflower Meal When Fed to Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 99(Suppl. 1): 86–87. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.140. Link to Abstract.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in six sources of partially de-hulled sunflower meal and one source of sunflower expellers from Ukraine, Hungary, Italy, and the U.S. when fed to growing pigs

Sunflower meal, which is the co-product derived from sunflower seeds after oil extraction, has a high concentration of digestible amino acids (AA) and fiber. The nutritive value and quality of sunflower meal is partially dependent on the degree of dehulling, the variety of the sunflower, and the oil extraction process. Sunflower seeds are initially de-hulled and then partially de-oiled using a mechanial prepress procedure. A second de-oiling procedure is performed using a solvent extraction procedure or by usign a second mechanical expelling procedure. The prepress-solvent extraction procedure results in production of sunflower oil and sunflower meal that contains 1 to 3% oil, whereas the double-press procedure results in production of sunflower oil and a sunflower product that contains 5 to 10% residual oil and commonly is referred to as sunflower expellers. Some of the hulls may be added back to the sunflower meal or the sunflower expellers resulting in differences in concentrations of total dietary fiber among sources.

The apparent ileal digestibility and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and AA in individual sources of partially de-hulled sunflower meal fed to pigs have been reported. However, there are no comparative values for the SID of AA in sunflower meal produced in different parts of the world, and it is not known if the SID of AA in sunflower meal are different from those in sunflower expellers. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the SID of CP and AA in different sources of sunflower meal and sunflower expellers obtained from different countries.

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