Digestibility

Basal endogenous loss, standardized total tract digestibility, and retention of calcium in gestating sows changes during gestation, but microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium by gestating sows

Standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca has been determined for most Ca containing ingredients fed to growing pigs, but the basal endogenous loss of Ca is greater and the STTD of Ca in sows in mid-gestation are less than in growing pigs. As a consequence, if diets for gestating sows are formulated using STTD values determined in growing pigs, the provisions of digestible Ca may be less than anticipated.

The efficacy of phytase to release Ca and P is believed to be influenced by the physiological state of pigs with phytase fed to sows in mid-gestation releasing less Ca and P compared with growing pigs or sows in late-gestation. However, it is not known if values for STTD of Ca or retention of Ca and P that are measured in one period of gestation are representative of the entire gestation period.

Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the STTD of Ca from calcium carbonate and the response to microbial phytase on STTD of Ca and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P in corn-based diets fed to gestating sows are constant throughout the gestating period for sows. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that retention of Ca and P does not change during gestation.

 

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Comparative digestibility and retention rate of calcium and phosphorus in low- and high-phytate diets fed to gestating sows and growing pigs

Digestibility of Ca and P is most correctly determined as standardized total tract digestibility (STTD). Data for the STTD of P in most feed ingredients have been published, and the STTD of Ca has also been determined in many feed ingredients. However, in practical diet formulation, values for STTD of Ca and P obtained in growing pigs are also applied to sows although there is a lack of comparative data between growing pigs and sows.

Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that no differences exist between gestating sows and growing pigs for basal endogenous losses, STTD, and retention of Ca and P.

 

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Crystalline amino acids in diets do not influence calculated values for amino acid digestibility in feed ingredients fed to pigs

Oliveira, S. F. M., J. J. Abelilla, K. J. Htoo, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Crystalline amino acids in diets do not influence calculated values for amino acid digestibility in feed ingredients fed to pigs. 14th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Adv. Anim. Biosci. Volume 9, Issue S2, 9:S71. (Abstr.). Link to abstract

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Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. I. Chemical composition, energy concentration, and digestibility of nutrients

Liu, Y., R. C. Sulabo, T. E. Sauber, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. I. Chemical composition, energy concentration, and digestibility of nutrients. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):667 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect of rate of daily gain on nutrient and energy digestibility in growing-finishing pigs

Jaworski, N. W., A. Owusu-Asiedu, D. Petri, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effect of rate of daily gain on nutrient and energy digestibility in growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):117 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Particle size reductions may help lower feed costs

By Dr. Hans H. Stein

December, 2010

It is well known that corn needs to be ground to be effectively utilized by pigs. For many years it has been common practice to recommend grinding to an average particle size between 650 and 700 microns. This particle size was based on research showing that if grain is ground to a smaller particle size, then problems with ulcers in pigs may increase.

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Effects of graded levels of phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and corn co-products

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Effects of graded levels of phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and corn co-products. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 2):378 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Performance and phosphorus balance of pigs fed diets formulated on the basis of values for standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Performance and phosphorus balance of pigs fed diets formulated on the basis of values for standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus. J. Anim Sci. 88:2968-2977. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestibility of dietary fiber in distillers co-products fed to growing pigs

Urriola, P. E., G. C. Shurson, and H. H. Stein. 2010. Digestibility of dietary fiber in distillers co-products fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88:2373-2381. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy and nutrient digestibility in four sources of distillers dried grains with solubles produced from corn grown within a narrow geographical area and fed to growing pigs

Stein, H. H., S. P. Connot, and C. Pedersen. 2009. Energy and nutrient digestibility in four sources of distillers dried grains with solubles produced from corn grown within a narrow geographical area and fed to growing pigs. Asian-Austr. J. Anim. Sci. 22:1016-1025. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of dietary concentration of P and microbial phytase on the digestibility of amino acids and energy by growing pigs

Pahm, A. A., G. I. Petersen, N. R. Augspurger, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Effects of dietary concentration of P and microbial phytase on the digestibility of amino acids and energy by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):92 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility of dietary fiber in distillers co-products fed to growing pigs

Urriola, P. E., G. C. Shurson, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Digestibility of dietary fiber in distillers co-products fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):83 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in a novel source of high-protein distillers dried grain fed to pigs

Kim, B. G., G. I. Petersen, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in a novel source of high-protein distillers dried grain fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):81 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of phytase supplementation on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of P in corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N. and H. H. Stein. 2009. Effects of phytase supplementation on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of P in corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 2):509 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on the digestibility of energy, DM, AA, and fiber, and intestinal transit time in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs

Urriola, P. E. and H. H. Stein.  2009. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on the digestibility of energy, DM, AA, and fiber, and intestinal transit time in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 2):145 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestible energy and metabolizable energy in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and enhanced DDGS

Soares, J. A., H. H. Stein, V. Singh and J. E. Pettigrew. 2008. Digestible energy and metabolizable energy in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and enhanced DDGS. J. Anim. Sci. 86 (E-Suppl. 2):522 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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True ileal amino acid digestibility in cecectomized roosters and lysine bioavailability in chicks fed distillers dried grains with solubles

Pahm, A. A., J. E. Pettigrew, C. S. Scherer, D. H. Baker, C. M. Parsons, and H. H. Stein. 2008. True ileal amino acid digestibility in cecectomized roosters and lysine bioavailability in chicks fed distillers dried grains with solubles. J. Anim. Sci. 86(E-Suppl. 2):180 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid and energy digestibility in soybean meal from high protein and low oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans fed to growing pigs

Baker, K. M., and H. H. Stein. 2008. Amino acid and energy digestibility in soybean meal from high protein and low oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86(E-Suppl. 2):179 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect of virginiamycin on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by growing pigs

L. L. Stewart, B. G. Kim, B. R. Gramm, R. D. Nimmo, and H. H. Stein. 2008. Effect of virginiamycin on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86(E-Suppl. 2):46 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Standardized ileal digestibility of reactive lysine in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs

Pahm, A. A., C. Pedersen, and H. H. Stein. 2008. Standardized ileal digestibility of reactive lysine in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86(E-Suppl. 3):87 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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