Digestibility

Effects of source of calcium carbonate and microbial phytase on digestibility of calcium

It is important that the digestibility of Ca in Ca sources is known to formulate diets based on values for digestible Ca rather than total Ca. Only a small amount of the Ca required by pigs is provided by plant-based ingredients and supplementation of Ca from Ca phosphates and Ca carbonate, is usually required to meet the requirement by pigs. In addition, use of microbial phytase increases Ca digestibility in Ca carbonate, which is one of the major sources of Ca in pig diets.

Differences in Ca digestibility in 4 sources of Ca carbonate produced in the United States have been observed, but it is unknown if there are differences in the ATTD of Ca in calcium carbonate sources produced outside the United States. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that there are differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and in the response to microbial phytase among 20 sources of Ca carbonate obtained from different parts of the world.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids differs among sources of bakery meal when fed to growing pigs

Stein, Hans H., Olayiwola Adeola, Samuel K. Baidoo, Merlin D. Lindemann, Sunday A. Adedokun, and North Central Coordinating Committee on Swine Nutrition. 2023. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids differs among sources of bakery meal when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 101, 1–10. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad208.

Metabolizable energy and apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients differ among samples of sunflower meal and sunflower expellers fed to growing pigs

Ibagon, Jimena A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2023. Metabolizable energy and apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients differ among samples of sunflower meal and sunflower expellers fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 101, 1–8. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad117. Link to full text.

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Effects of corn hardness and drying temperature on digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to growing pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine D., Joaquin Cabañas-Ojeda, Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón, and Hans H. Stein. 2023. Effects of corn hardness and drying temperature on digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 101: 1–9. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad124. Link to full text.

Nutritional value of a new source of cheese coproduct fed to weanling pigs

Mallea, Andrea P., Maryane S. F. Oliveira, Diego A. Lopez, and Hans H. Stein. 2023. Nutritional value of a new source of cheese coproduct fed to weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science: 101, 1–10. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skad107. Link to full text.

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Exogenous xylanase increases digestibility of energy and fiber in diets for gestating and lactating sows

Exogenous enzymes may improve the fermentability of dietary fiber in swine diets by hydrolyzing non-starch polysaccharides into oligosaccharides and sugars. In particular, the enzyme xylanase hydrolyzes the β-(1-4) glycosidic bonds between the xylose units in the backbone of arabinoxylans in cereal grains and grain coproducts, resulting in the release of a combination of xylose, arabinose, and xylo-oligosaccharides from arabinoxylans that can be fermented by pigs. Previous data indicate that xylanase increased the degradation of dietary fiber and increased energy digestibility in diets for growing pigs; however, there are limited data for the impact of xylanase on energy and fiber digestibility in gestating and lactating sows. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that exogenous xylanase added to diets for gestating and lactating sows will increase the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy and total dietary fiber (TDF), and increase the concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) during two reproductive cycles.

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Variability in wheat middlings; are there differences in digestibility, composition among sources?

Espinosa, C. D., and H. H. Stein. 2023. Variability in wheat middlings; are there differences in digestibility, composition among sources?  National Hog Farmer, March/April 2023. Link to full text.

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Effects of different corn sources and drying temperature on digestibility of energy and total dietary fiber in diets fed to growing pigs

Drying temperatures and corn varieties that inherently differ in kernel hardness, virtuousness, and protein solubility index may influence nutrient digestibility in corn. However, information about interactive effects of corn source (i.e., endosperm hardness) and drying method on energy and nutrient digestibility is limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and total dietary fiber (TDF) is influenced by corn source and drying temperature.

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Effects of different protein sources in low-phosphorus diets on the basal endogenous loss of phosphorus by growing pigs

Phosphorus is one of the most expensive nutrients in swine diets. Use of standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, instead of apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), may reduce the cost of diets because STTD values, unlike ATTD values, are additive in mixed diets. Values for STTD of P can be determined by correcting ATTD of P for the basal endogenous loss of P. The basal endogenous loss of P is estimated by using a P-free diet. Gelatin has been widely used in P-free diets because it does not contain any P and is a good source of protein. However, gelatin products can make diets dusty and sticky which can reduce the palatability of these diets and make them hard to work with. In addition, feeding pigs with diets containing no P may cause health issues in pigs. Blood plasma, casein, and potato protein concentrate are possible protein alternatives to gelatin because the P in blood plasma and casein is close to 100% digestible and potato protein concentrate provides very little P. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the basal endogenous loss of P from pigs fed a diet containing blood plasma, casein, or potato protein concentrate are not different from that of pigs fed a diet containing gelatin.

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Effects of different corn sources and drying temperature on ileal digestibility of starch and amino acids in diets fed to growing pigs

Drying temperatures and corn varieties that inherently differ in kernel hardness, virtuousness, and protein solubility index may influence nutrient digestibility in corn. However, information about interactive effects of corn source (i.e., endosperm hardness) and drying method on nutrient digestibility is limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the ileal digestibility of starch, crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) is influenced by corn source and drying temperature.

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Metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility by growing pigs may be reduced if excessive heat is applied during drying of corn

Corn is harvested at a high moisture level, and thus must be dried to less than 15% moisture to ensure safe storage. Improvements to reduce the energy consumption of the dryers have been implemented, especially by increasing the inlet air temperature. However, overheating may have a negative impact on the stability of nutrients, especially amino acids (AA), because Maillard reactions may occur if heat and moisture are applied to feed ingredients. Consequently, Maillard reactions result in a decrease in the concentration and digestibility of AA, and it is possible that energy digestibility is also reduced. Therefore, the objective of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that both the temperature used in drying and the time that heat is applied will affect the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA, and concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in corn fed to growing pigs.

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Digestibility and Availability of Nutrients in Feed Ingredients

Lee, S. A., and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility and Availability of Nutrients in Feed Ingredients. L. I. Chiba, editor, Sustainable Swine Nutrition. 2nd rev. ed. doi:10.1002/9781119583998.ch19. Link to full text.

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Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in a new variety of soybeans fed to growing pigs

More than half of P in soybeans are bound to phytate which causes a low digestibility of P when fed to pigs. However, new varieties that have different characteristics are sometimes developed and an example is the Photoseed variety of soybeans that captures more carbon and sunlight leading to a more nutrient rich ingredient and a reduced footprint from crop production. There is, however, no information about the nutritional value of the soybean meal produced from the Photoseed variety of soybeans. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P is not different in soybean meal produced from Photoseed soybeans compared with control soybean meal when fed to pigs.

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Digestibility of phosphorus in high protein corn co-products fed to growing pigs

New sources of high protein corn co-products have been recently developed and may be included in diets fed to pigs. Phytase is often employed during fermentation in the bioethanol process to improve the efficiency of fermentation. However, the use of phytase during fermentation may impact the nature of phosphorus (P) in any post fermentation products, which could subsequently alter the levels of phytate-bound and non-phytate P. As a consequence, this may influence digestibility and concentration of digestible P in any feed product derived from fermentation. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in high protein corn fermented products and in the residual distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS) produced from a fermentation with or without the use of phytase. It is also the objective of this experiment to test the hypothesis that inclusion of phytase during the fermentation process increases P digestibility in corn co-products.

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Effects of a mixture of xylanase and glucanase on digestibility of energy and dietary fiber in corn- or sorghum based diets fed to growing pigs

Oliveira, M. S. F., C. D. Espinosa, L. Blavi, M. Mortada, F. N. Almeida, H. H. Stein. 2022. Effects of a mixture of xylanase and glucanase on digestibility of energy and dietary fiber in corn- or sorghum based diets fed to growing pigs.

Digestibility of energy in ten sources of wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Data have been published for the composition of wheat middlings from flour mills in the U.S. and data for digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) have been reported as well. However, it is not known if the data obtained in wheat middlings from the U.S. also are representative for wheat middlings in Europe. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in composition, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), and concentration of DE and ME between wheat middlings sourced from flour mills in Europe and in the U.S.

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Effect of increasing microbial phytase levels on digestibility of phosphorus in field peas fed to young pigs

The majority of P in most plant feed ingredients is bound to phytate. Pigs, however, do not synthesize adequate endogenous phytate to release the P bound to phytate, which results in low digestibility of P in field peas. Values for ATTD and STTD of P in field peas without and with phytase have been reported, but there are no comparative values for the ATTD and STTD of P in field peas adding different levels of phytase. The objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of increasing levels of phytase on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in field peas fed to growing pigs.

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Effects of a Probiotic Bacillus Strain on Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein, Starch, Energy and fat and Total Tract Digestibility of Energy and Dietary Fiber in Diets fed to Weanling Pigs

Oliveira, Maryane. S. F., Guillermo Jimenez, Hans H Stein. 2022. Effects of a Probiotic Bacillus Strain on Ileal Digestibility of Crude Protein, Starch, Energy and fat and Total Tract Digestibility of Energy and Dietary Fiber in Diets fed to Weanling Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100 (Suppl. 3) 118–119. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac247.228.

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Microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium in pigs fed diets containing phytate phosphorus at commercial levels

Nelson, Megan E., Su A Lee, Yueming Dersjant-Li, Janet Remus, and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium in pigs fed diets containing phytate phosphorus at commercial levels. Journal of Animal Science, 2022, 100, 1–7. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac280. Link to full text.

Digestibility of amino acids in ten sources of wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Data for the composition of wheat middlings from flour mills in the U.S. and for the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) have been published for wheat middlings from the U.S. However, it is not known if the data obtained from wheat middlings from the U.S. also are representative for wheat middlings in Europe. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in composition and SID of CP and AA between wheat middlings sourced from flour mills in Europe and in the U.S.

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