Digestibility

Microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium in pigs fed diets containing phytate phosphorus at commercial levels

Nelson, Megan E., Su A Lee, Yueming Dersjant-Li, Janet Remus, and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium in pigs fed diets containing phytate phosphorus at commercial levels. Journal of Animal Science, 2022, 100, 1–7. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac280. Link to full text.

Digestibility of amino acids in ten sources of wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

Data for the composition of wheat middlings from flour mills in the U.S. and for the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) have been published for wheat middlings from the U.S. However, it is not known if the data obtained from wheat middlings from the U.S. also are representative for wheat middlings in Europe. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in composition and SID of CP and AA between wheat middlings sourced from flour mills in Europe and in the U.S.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in high protein corn fermented products fed to growing pigs

New sources of high protein corn co-products have been recently developed and may be included in diets fed to pigs. High protein corn fermented products have been evaluated in several economically important livestock species, but additional information is required with respect to the use of these products in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) of high protein corn fermented products and in Post MSC DDGS.

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Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in three different sources of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) with different particle sizes fed to weanling pigs

Field peas have been produced mainly for human consumption, but lastly, the industry has been included in diets fed to livestock due to its content of starch and protein. In diets for swine, only peas that are harvested at maturity are used. Almost 80% of P in non-oilseed legumes is bound to phytate, and pigs do not synthesize an adequate amount of endogenous phytate to liberate the P bound to phytate. Therefore, the digestibility of P in field peas is relatively low. Values for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in field peas have been reported, but there are no comparative values for the ATTD and STTD of P among different varieties of field peas at different particle sizes. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in the ATTD and the STTD of P among different sources of field peas fed to young pigs and the second hypothesis was that there is a linear increase in the ATTD and STTD of P as the particle size of field peas increases.

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Digestibility of amino acids in high protein corn fermented products fed to growing pigs

New sources of high protein corn co-products have been recently developed and may be included in diets fed to pigs. High protein corn fermented products have been evaluated in several economically important livestock species, but additional information is required with respect to the use of these products in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in high protein corn fermented products and in the residual distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS) is greater than in soybean meal (SBM).

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Effect of microbial phytase on digestibility of phosphorus in seven sources of sunflower meal fed to growing pigs

The majority of P in oilseed co-products is bound to phytate; however, pigs do not synthesize adequate amount of endogenous phytate to liberate the P bound to phytate and the digestibility of P in sunflower meal, therefore is low. Values for ATTD and STTD of P in sunflower meal (SFM) without and with phytase have been reported, but there are no comparative values for the ATTD and STTD of P in sunflower co-products produced in different parts of the world. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the ATTD and the STTD of P in different sources of sunflower co-products, and to test the hypothesis that regardless of source, microbial phytase increases the digestibility of P in sunflower co-products fed to young pigs.

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The digestibility of energy and nutrients and the efficiency of phytase to degrade phytate is influenced by pig body weight

Lagos, V., M. Bedford, and H. H. Stein. 2022. The digestibility of energy and nutrients and the efficiency of phytase to degrade phytate is influenced by pig body weight. 15th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Animal - Science Proceedings 13(Issue 2): 174. Link to abstract.

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Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs.15th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Animal - Science Proceedings 13(Issue 2): 178 - 179. Link to abstract.

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Comparative digestibility of energy, dry matter, and nutrients by gestating and lactating sows fed corn–soybean meal diets without or with full-fat or defatted rice bran

Casas, Gloria A., Maryane S.F. Oliveira, Charmaine D. Espinosa, and H.H. Stein. 2022. Comparative digestibility of energy, dry matter, and nutrients by gestating and lactating sows fed corn–soybean meal diets without or with full-fat or defatted rice bran. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 102: 401–405 (2022) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0086.

Effects of Increasing Dose of a Novel E. coli Phytase on Total Tract Digestibility of Minerals and Energy in Pigs

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Effects of Increasing Dose of a Novel E. coli Phytase on Total Tract Digestibility of Minerals and Energy in Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100(Suppl. 2): 36-37. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac064.059. Link to Abstr.

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Effect of Increasing Levels of a Novel Consensus Bacterial 6-Phytase Variant on Ileal and Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients in Diets Fed to Young Pigs.

Espinosa, C. D., D. Velayudhan, Y. Dersjant-Li, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Effect of Increasing Levels of a Novel Consensus Bacterial 6-Phytase Variant on Ileal and Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients in Diets Fed to Young Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100(Suppl.2): 34–35. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac064.056. Link to Abstr.

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Effects of a probiotic Bacillus strain on ileal digestibility of crude protein, dry matter, starch, energy and fat and total tract digestibility of energy and dietary fiber in diets fed to weanling pigs

Addition of probiotics to swine diets may improve gut health by modifying the microflora, which may help control pathogens, enhance immune response, and increase nutrient digestibility. Once consumed by the pig, probiotics enter the stomach where they are subjected to a low pH and pepsin. The Bacillus strain are metabolically inactive spores that are thermostable and survive at a low pH and, therefore, are thought to survive feed processing and digestion in the stomach. Addition of a Bacillus strain may enhance fermentation of dietary fiber in swine diets and, subsequently, increase the available energy from the diet in the form of volatile fatty acids. Bacillus strain also may degrade non-starch polysaccharides to reducing sugars that may serve as an energy source for the pig. A novel probiotic Bacillus toyonensis M15750 has been developed, but there are limited data to demonstrate the efficacy of this probiotic to increase nutrient digestibility. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that probiotic Bacillus toyonensis M15750 improve the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients when included in diets fed by weanling pigs.

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Ileal and total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in pig diets supplemented with a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase

The effect of microbial phytase on Ca and P digestibility in diets for pigs and poultry is well established. In poultry, it also appears that the effect of phytase in increasing amino acid (AA) digestibility is consistent, but that is not the case when phytase is added to diets for pigs. However, in many experiments, relatively low levels of phytase was used and it is not known if greater concentrations of phytase will result in a different result. A novel phytase has been recently developed; however, it is also not known if this phytase source can increase digestibility of AA and other nutrients. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of increasing levels of the novel phytase in diets for growing pigs increases the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and AA, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and minerals.

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Effects of dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus, and 1-alphahydroxycholecalciferol on digestibility, retention of calcium and phosphorus, and concentration of metabolizable energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Lee, Su A., and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Effects of dietary levels of calcium, phosphorus, and 1-alphahydroxycholecalciferol on digestibility, retention of calcium and phosphorus, and concentration of  metabolizable energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 102: 184–188 (2022) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0018. Link to full text.

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Shiitake mycelium fermentation improves digestibility, nutritional value, flavor and functionality of plant proteins

Clark, Anthony J., Bhupendra K. Soni, Brendan Sharkey, Terry Acree, Edward Lavin, Hannah M. Bailey, Hans H. Stein, Ashley Han, Marc Elie, Marina Nadal. 2022. Shiitake mycelium fermentation improves digestibility, nutritional value, flavor and functionality of plant proteins. LWT - Food Science and Technology 156 (2022) 113065. doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2021.113065.

Comparative digestibility of energy, dry matter, and nutrients by gestating and lactating sows fed corn-soybean meal diets without or with full fat or defatted rice bran

The physiological stage of pigs may influence total tract digestibility of nutrients because the digestibility of energy and some nutrients increases as body weight increases, but the impact of physiological stage may be greater for high-fiber diets than for diets with less concentration of fiber. Full fat rice bran (FFRB) and defatted rice bran (DFRB) are produced in the rice milling process and is available for animal feeding. However, because of the high concentration of dietary fiber, FFRB and DFRB may be better suited for diets fed to sows than for diets for weanling or growing pigs, but there is a lack of data on the digestibility of energy and nutrients in FFRB and DFRB fed to sows. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null-hypothesis that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and P in a corn-soybean meal diet and in diets containing FFRB or DFRB is not different between lactating sows and gestating sows if both groups are allowed to consume their diet on an ad libitum basis.

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Long-term steam conditioning is needed to maximize the nutritional value of expander-processed soybean expellers

Espinosa, Charmaine D., Maryane S. F. Oliveira, Joseph R. Limbach, Natalia S. Fanelli, Markus K. Wiltafsky-Martin, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Long-term steam conditioning is needed to maximize the nutritional value of expander-processed soybean expellers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 101: 704–714 (2021) dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2021-0029. Link to full text.

Effect of phytase on mineral digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with pharmacological levels of Zn

Espinosa, C. D., D. Velayudhan, Y. Dersjant-Li, J. Remus, H. H. Stein. 2021. Effect of phytase on mineral digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with pharmacological levels of Zn. J. Anim. Sci. 99(Suppl. S3): 400-401. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab235.727. Link to abstract.

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A Salute to PVT TIM HiLL: Indispensable Amino Acids and Global Human Health

Berg, Eric P., and Hans H. Stein. 2021. A Salute to PVT TIM HiLL: Indispensable Amino Acids and Global Human Health. Meat and Muscle Biology 2021.5(3): 4, 1–10. doi:10.22175/mmb.12925. Link to full text.

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The amino acid digestibility and digestible indispensable amino acid score for rapeseed protein isolate increases after moderate heating resulting in a protein quality similar to whey protein isolate

Rapeseed is the second most produced oilseed in the world after soybean, and after the oil is extracted, a protein-rich meal is the resulting byproduct containing greater concentrations of sulfur amino acids (AA; i.e., Met and Cys) and Lys compared with legumes and cereal grains. Rapeseed proteins have great potential as a high-quality plant-based protein for humans due to their well-balanced AA profile, high metabolic utilization of protein, a protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) similar to soy and milk proteins, and easily separable antinutritional factors. However, to our knowledge, digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) has not been determined for rapeseed protein isolate and the level of processing required to concentrate rapeseed into a protein isolate warrants further evaluation of its protein quality. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that heat treatment of rapeseed protein isolate will increase the digestibility of AA by growing pigs and result in a DIAAS that is comparable to soy and animal protein isolates.

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