Distillers dried grains with solubles

Effects of diet form and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on stomach morphology and ulceration scores in growing-finishing pigs

Grossman, I. M., M. F. Overholt, J. E. Lowell, H. H. Stein, E. K. Arkfed, A. C. Dilger, and D. D. Boler. 2015. Effects of diet form and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on stomach morphology and ulceration scores in growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):195-196 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of diet form and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and visceral weights of growing-finishing pigs

Overholt, M. F., J. E. Lowell, I. M. Grossman, H. H. Stein, A. C. Dilger, and D. D. Boler. 2015. Effects of diet form and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and visceral weights of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):186-187 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of chemical, physical, or enzymatic treatments on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on ATTD of energy, organic matter, and detergent fiber in distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of chemical, physical, or enzymatic treatments on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on apparent total tract digestibility of energy, organic matter, and detergent fiber in distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):135 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Energy digestibility in 23 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Curry, S. M. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Energy digestibility in 23 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):59 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of co-products from the corn-ethanol industry on body composition, retention of protein, lipids and energy, and on the net energy of diets fed to growing or finishing pigs

Gutierrez, N. A., D. Y. Kil, Y. Liu, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of co-products from the corn-ethanol industry on body composition, retention of protein, lipids and energy, and on the net energy of diets fed to growing or finishing pigs. J. Sci. Food Agric. 94:3008-3016. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of dietary sulfur and distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass characteristics, loin quality, and tissue concentrations of sulfur, selenium, and copper in growing–finishing pigs

Kim, B. G., D. Y. Kil, D. C. Mahan, G. M. Hill, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of dietary sulfur and distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass characteristics, loin quality, and tissue concentrations of sulfur, selenium, and copper in growing–finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4486-4493. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy digestibility in 23 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of the ethanol industry and is often used as an economical source of energy and protein in swine diets. Conventional DDGS contains approximately 27% crude protein, 10% fat, 9% acid detergent fiber (ADF), and 25% (NDF). The concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in conventional sources of DDGS are approximately 3,500 and 3,350 kcal/kg, respectively. However, there is significant variation in the way different plants produce DDGS. For example, in recent years ethanol plants have begun extracting oil from DDGS to sell to the biodiesel industry. This results in DDGS with its fat content reduced to approximately 6 to 9%, which may result in lower concentrations of DE and ME.

If pigs are fed diets containing decreased levels of DE and ME relative to conventional DDGS, a reduction in growth performance may result. This would make DDGS a less economical feedstuff. An experiment was conducted to determine the variability of DE and ME in DDGS produced in and around Illinois.

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Effects of chemical, physical, or enzymatic treatments on concentration of DE and ME and on digestibility of energy, organic matter, and fiber in DDGS fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of the ethanol industry, is an affordable source of energy and protein in pig diets. DDGS contains more gross energy than corn, but the energy is less digestible because of the high concentration of insoluble fiber in DDGS. If the fiber in DDGS could be made more soluble with pretreatment, its feed value would be improved.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of physical, chemical, and enzymatic pretreatments on the concentrations of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy and on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy, organic matter, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral (NDF) detergent fiber.

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Digestibility of amino acids in distillers dried grains with solubles produced in Europe from wheat, maize, or mixtures of wheat and maize and fed to growing pigs

Curry, S. M., J. K. Htoo, H. V. Masey O'Neill, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestibility of amino acids in distillers dried grains with solubles produced in Europe from wheat, maize, or mixtures of wheat and maize and fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 92(E-Suppl. 2):643 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization

Mumm, R. H., P. D. Goldsmith, K. D. Rausch, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization. Biotechnol. Biofuels 7:61. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 4:44. Link to full text (.pdf)

Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:5326-5335. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Prediction of the concentration of standardized ileal digestible amino acids in distillers dried grains with solubles

Urriola, P. E., L. J. Johnston, H. H. Stein, and G. C. Shurson. 2013. Prediction of the concentration of standardized ileal digestible amino acids in distillers dried grains with solubles. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4389-4396. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

The production of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) involves a drying step in which temperature may reach 500°C or greater. The application of heat and moisture to feedstuffs results in the Maillard reaction, which reduces the concentration and digestibility of amino acids. Lysine's chemical structure makes it particularly susceptible to the Maillard reaction. However, during the acid hydrolysis step of amino acid analysis, some lysine is recovered from Maillard products, but this lysine cannot be utilized by the animals, and thus, the amount of digestible lysine in a sample may be overestimated. Therefore, methods other than simple lysine analysis must be used when assessing feed that may be heat damaged.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of heat damage on the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in corn DDGS fed to growing pigs. A second objective of the experiment was to develop regression equations to predict the concentration of standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids in DDGS.

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Effects of adjusting the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) amino acids in heat damaged soybean meal (SBM) or distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets on performance of weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of adjusting the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) amino acids in heat damaged soybean meal (SBM) or distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets on performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(E-Suppl. 2):686 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Energy concentrations in distillers dried grains with solubles containing different fat concentrations and the effect of corn oil addition on energy concentrations in diets fed to growing pigs

Kil, D. Y., J. W. Lee, D. M. D. L. Navarro, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Energy concentrations in distillers dried grains with solubles containing different fat concentrations and the effect of corn oil addition on energy concentrations in diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 91(E-Suppl. 2):582-583 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Nutritional value of dried fermentation biomass, hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Sulabo, R. C., J. K. Mathai, J. L. Usry, B. W. Ratliff, D. M. McKilligan, J. D. Moline, G. Xu, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Nutritional value of dried fermentation biomass, hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2802-2811. Link to full text (.pdf)

Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles

Lee, J. W., D. Y. Kil, B. D. Keever, J. Killefer, F. K. McKeith, R. C. Sulabo, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2426-2437. Link to full text (.pdf)

Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):122 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility in heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):110 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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