Distillers dried grains with solubles

Amino acid digestibility by growing pigs in distillers dried grains with solubles with conventional, medium, or low concentrations of fat

Curry, S., Navarro, D., Almeida, F., and H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility by growing pigs in distillers dried grains with solubles with conventional, medium, or low concentrations of fat. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):102-103 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Baker, S. R., B. G. Kim, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:203-210. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Up to 30% corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing–finishing pigs without affecting pig growth performance, carcass composition, or pork fat quality

Lee, J. W., F. K. McKeith, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Up to 30% corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing–finishing pigs without affecting pig growth performance, carcass composition, or pork fat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 90:4933-4942. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Feeding biofuels co-products to pigs

Shurson, G. C., R. T. Zijlstra, B. J. Kerr, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Feeding biofuels co-products to pigs. Pages 175-207 in Biofuel Co-products as Livestock Feed: Opportunities and Challenges. Makkar, H. P. S., ed. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Concentrations of analyzed or reactive lysine, but not crude protein, may predict the concentration of digestible lysine in distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Kim, B. G., D. Y. Kil, Y. Zhang, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Concentrations of analyzed or reactive lysine, but not crude protein, may predict the concentration of digestible lysine in distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90:3798:3808. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect of fat concentration in distillers dried grains with solubles on concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles, or DDGS, is a co-product of the rapidly growing ethanol industry. DDGS has been increasingly used for swine diets because of its affordability and nutritive value. Corn DDGS is high in energy, amino acids, and digestible phosphorus.

In the last few years, more ethanol plants have started  to use centrifugation to extract oil from DDGS for use in the production of biodiesel. The resulting DDGS products contain less fat than conventional DDGS. Reduced-fat DDGS products would be expected to have decreased digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy concentrations compared with  conventional DDGS, but energy values for these products have not yet been reported.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of DE and ME in three sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) containing different fat concentrations. In addition, the effect of supplementing diets containing reduced-fat DDGS products with corn oil to increase DE and ME concentrations was determined.

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Effects of sulfur concentration in diets containing distillers dried grain with solubles on carcass characteristics and tissue mineral concentrations in growing-finishing pigs

Kim, B. G., D. Y. Kil, D. C. Mahan, G. M. Hill, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Effects of sulfur concentration in diets containing distillers dried grain with solubles on carcass characteristics and tissue mineral concentrations in growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):565 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Withdrawal patterns of DDGS on performance, belly firmness, and fatty acids in pigs—A cooperative study

Cromwell, G. L., M. J. Azain, O. Adeola, S. K. Baidoo, S. D. Carter, T. D. Crenshaw, G. M. Hill, P. S. Miller, J. F. Patience, M. C. Shannon, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Withdrawal patterns of DDGS on performance, belly firmness, and fatty acids in pigs—A cooperative study. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):467-468 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Inclusion of corn germ and corn distillers dried grains with solubles in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs

Lee, J. W. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Inclusion of corn germ and corn distillers dried grains with solubles in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 2):110 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of replacing soybean meal with pea chips and distillers dried grains with solubles in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs on growth performance, carcass quality, and pork palatability

Harris, E. K., E. P. Berg, T. C. Gilbery, A. N. Lepper, H. H. Stein, and D. J. Newman. 2012. Effects of replacing soybean meal with pea chips and distillers dried grains with solubles in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs on growth performance, carcass quality, and pork palatability. Prof. Anim. Sci. 28:1-10. Link to full text (.pdf)

Up to 30% corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs without affecting pig growth performance, carcass composition or pork fat quality

Corn germ is a co-product of the wet milling industry that is available for use in swine diets to partially replace the more expensive corn grain. Results of arecent experiment indicated that including 15% corn germ in diets containing 30% DDGS had no negative effects on pig growth performance, carcass composition, or pork fat quality. However, it is not known if greater quantities of corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. Therefore, we conducted an experiment to determine if greater levels of corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs without negatively affecting growth performance, carcass characteristics, muscle and fat quality, or belly quality. The experiment also determined if the presence of DDGS in the diets influences the responses to the inclusion of corn germ.

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Dietary soybean oil and choice white grease improve apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in swine diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles

Kil, D. Y. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Dietary soybean oil and choice white grease improve apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in swine diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles. Rev. Colomb. Cienc. Pecu. 24:248-253. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of including tallow, palm kernel oil, corn germ, or glycerol to diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles on pork fat quality of growing-finishing pigs

Lee, J. W., B. D. Keever, J. Killefer, F. K. McKeith, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Effects of including tallow, palm kernel oil, corn germ, or glycerol to diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles on pork fat quality of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):679 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn co-­products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

Almeida, F. N., G. I. Petersen, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn co-­products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):441 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and corn distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Baker, S. R., B. G. Kim, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and corn distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 2):120 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Feeding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and other ethanol coproducts to swine

Stein, H. H. 2011. Feeding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and other ethanol coproducts to swine. Pages 297-316 in Distiller's Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization. Liu, K. and K. Rosentrater, eds. CRC Press, Tailor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Negative effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on fat quality of pigs are not ameliorated by addition of corn germ, tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) can be fed in swine diets at an inclusion rate of up to 30% without negatively affecting pig growth performance. However, DDGS contains high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which may promote deposition of unsaturated dietary fatty acids in adipose tissue. Consequently, inclusion of DDGS at more than 20% has been shown to result in increased fat iodine values (IV) and soft belly production.  The disadvantages of this decrease in fat quality include reduced shelf life, increased susceptibility to oxidative damage, and reduced belly sliceability.

An experiment was performed to determine if the addition of different sources of saturated fat would improve belly fat quality in pigs fed a DDGS-based diet. In addition, the hypothesis that the iodine value product (IVP) of the diet can be used to predict backfat IV and belly fat IV of pigs fed diets containing DDGS was tested.

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Materias primas alternativas en nutrición porcina: 2. Granos secos de destilería con solubles

Stein, H. H. 2010. Materias primas alternativas en nutrición porcina: 2. Granos secos de destilería con solubles. Pages 34-45 in Suis, December 2010. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates

Stein, H. H. 2011. Energy and nutrient concentration and digestibility in alternative feed ingredients and recommended inclusion rates. In Proceedings of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians 42nd Annual Meeting. Phoenix, AZ. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

Rising costs of traditional swine feeds are causing many producers to look for alternative feedstuffs to deliver nutritional value at a lower cost. The corn milling and fermentation industries, and the human food industry, create co-products which can be fed to livestock.  One of these, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), has been found to be suitable for inclusion in swine diets up to 30%. Other co-products have not been as extensively studied. This experiment was performed to measure the apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, hominy feed, and bakery meal in growing pigs and to compare these values to the values observed for DDGS and corn.

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