Distillers dried grains with solubles

Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization

Mumm, R. H., P. D. Goldsmith, K. D. Rausch, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization. Biotechnol. Biofuels 7:61. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 4:44. Link to full text (.pdf)

Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

Rojas, O. J., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:5326-5335. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Prediction of the concentration of standardized ileal digestible amino acids in distillers dried grains with solubles

Urriola, P. E., L. J. Johnston, H. H. Stein, and G. C. Shurson. 2013. Prediction of the concentration of standardized ileal digestible amino acids in distillers dried grains with solubles. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4389-4396. Link to full text (.pdf)

Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

The production of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) involves a drying step in which temperature may reach 500°C or greater. The application of heat and moisture to feedstuffs results in the Maillard reaction, which reduces the concentration and digestibility of amino acids. Lysine's chemical structure makes it particularly susceptible to the Maillard reaction. However, during the acid hydrolysis step of amino acid analysis, some lysine is recovered from Maillard products, but this lysine cannot be utilized by the animals, and thus, the amount of digestible lysine in a sample may be overestimated. Therefore, methods other than simple lysine analysis must be used when assessing feed that may be heat damaged.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of heat damage on the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in corn DDGS fed to growing pigs. A second objective of the experiment was to develop regression equations to predict the concentration of standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids in DDGS.

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Effects of adjusting the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) amino acids in heat damaged soybean meal (SBM) or distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets on performance of weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of adjusting the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) amino acids in heat damaged soybean meal (SBM) or distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets on performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(E-Suppl. 2):686 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Energy concentrations in distillers dried grains with solubles containing different fat concentrations and the effect of corn oil addition on energy concentrations in diets fed to growing pigs

Kil, D. Y., J. W. Lee, D. M. D. L. Navarro, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Energy concentrations in distillers dried grains with solubles containing different fat concentrations and the effect of corn oil addition on energy concentrations in diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 91(E-Suppl. 2):582-583 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Nutritional value of dried fermentation biomass, hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Sulabo, R. C., J. K. Mathai, J. L. Usry, B. W. Ratliff, D. M. McKilligan, J. D. Moline, G. Xu, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Nutritional value of dried fermentation biomass, hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2802-2811. Link to full text (.pdf)

Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles

Lee, J. W., D. Y. Kil, B. D. Keever, J. Killefer, F. K. McKeith, R. C. Sulabo, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2426-2437. Link to full text (.pdf)

Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):122 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility in heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility in heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):110 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid digestibility by growing pigs in distillers dried grains with solubles with conventional, medium, or low concentrations of fat

Curry, S., Navarro, D., Almeida, F., and H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility by growing pigs in distillers dried grains with solubles with conventional, medium, or low concentrations of fat. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):102-103 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs

Baker, S. R., B. G. Kim, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:203-210. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Up to 30% corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing–finishing pigs without affecting pig growth performance, carcass composition, or pork fat quality

Lee, J. W., F. K. McKeith, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Up to 30% corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing–finishing pigs without affecting pig growth performance, carcass composition, or pork fat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 90:4933-4942. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Feeding biofuels co-products to pigs

Shurson, G. C., R. T. Zijlstra, B. J. Kerr, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Feeding biofuels co-products to pigs. Pages 175-207 in Biofuel Co-products as Livestock Feed: Opportunities and Challenges. Makkar, H. P. S., ed. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Concentrations of analyzed or reactive lysine, but not crude protein, may predict the concentration of digestible lysine in distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

Kim, B. G., D. Y. Kil, Y. Zhang, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Concentrations of analyzed or reactive lysine, but not crude protein, may predict the concentration of digestible lysine in distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90:3798:3808. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect of fat concentration in distillers dried grains with solubles on concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles, or DDGS, is a co-product of the rapidly growing ethanol industry. DDGS has been increasingly used for swine diets because of its affordability and nutritive value. Corn DDGS is high in energy, amino acids, and digestible phosphorus.

In the last few years, more ethanol plants have started  to use centrifugation to extract oil from DDGS for use in the production of biodiesel. The resulting DDGS products contain less fat than conventional DDGS. Reduced-fat DDGS products would be expected to have decreased digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy concentrations compared with  conventional DDGS, but energy values for these products have not yet been reported.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of DE and ME in three sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) containing different fat concentrations. In addition, the effect of supplementing diets containing reduced-fat DDGS products with corn oil to increase DE and ME concentrations was determined.

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Effects of sulfur concentration in diets containing distillers dried grain with solubles on carcass characteristics and tissue mineral concentrations in growing-finishing pigs

Kim, B. G., D. Y. Kil, D. C. Mahan, G. M. Hill, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Effects of sulfur concentration in diets containing distillers dried grain with solubles on carcass characteristics and tissue mineral concentrations in growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):565 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Withdrawal patterns of DDGS on performance, belly firmness, and fatty acids in pigs—A cooperative study

Cromwell, G. L., M. J. Azain, O. Adeola, S. K. Baidoo, S. D. Carter, T. D. Crenshaw, G. M. Hill, P. S. Miller, J. F. Patience, M. C. Shannon, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Withdrawal patterns of DDGS on performance, belly firmness, and fatty acids in pigs—A cooperative study. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):467-468 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Inclusion of corn germ and corn distillers dried grains with solubles in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs

Lee, J. W. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Inclusion of corn germ and corn distillers dried grains with solubles in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 2):110 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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