Energy digestibility

Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on the digestibility of energy and nutrients and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs

Rojas, O. J., and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on the digestibility of energy and nutrients and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Proceedings of the 2013 Allen D. Leman Swine conference, St. Paul, Minnesota, September 14-17, 2013. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):122 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect of rate of daily gain on nutrient and energy digestibility in growing-finishing pigs

Jaworski, N. W., A. Owusu-Asiedu, D. Petri, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effect of rate of daily gain on nutrient and energy digestibility in growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):117 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of thermal processing on the nutritional value of feed ingredients

Almeida, F. N., O. J. Rojas, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Effects of thermal processing on the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Pages 269-274 in XXVIII Curso de Especialización: Avances en nutrición y alimentación animal, Madrid, Nov. 7-8, 2012. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect on phosphorous and energy digestibility of reducing the particle size of corn fed to growing pigs

Research has shown that grinding cereal grains in diets fed to pigs into smaller particle sizes improves growth performance. Feed ground to smaller particle sizes has more surface area on which digestive enzymes can work, so digestibility of energy and nutrients that are enzymatically digested may also  improved. Generating specific data on energy and nutrient digestibility will help determine the optimal particle size for feed ingredients.

An experiment was conducted to determine the concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and to measure the apparent (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus by growing pigs fed diets containing corn that was ground to different particle sizes.

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Energy, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility in Lemna protein concentrate, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2012. Energy, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility in Lemna protein concentrate, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90(E-Suppl. 3):467 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs

With the prices of cereal grains rising, opportunities to reduce feed costs by using alternative ingredients are being explored. One source of alternative feed ingredients is co-products from the human food industries. However, little information has been published on the digestibility of energy in these ingredients. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable in hominy feed, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, and to compare these values with values obtained for corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS).

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Concentration of energy and digestibility of energy and nutrients in fermented soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Soybean meal is a rich source of digestible amino acids for pigs. However, soybeans contain antinutritional factors such as antigenic proteins, oligosaccharides, lectins, and trypsin inhibitors that make soybeans and conventional soybean meal unsuitable for feeding to weanling pigs in great quantities. Therefore, animal protein is usually included in starter diets for pigs. Because soy protein is less expensive than the animal protein, strategies to reduce the antinutritional factors in soy products have been explored. Fermentation of soybean meal with bacteria such as Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus subtilis eliminates many antinutritional factors, and studies have shown that fermented soybean meal is well-tolerated by weanling pigs. However, there is a lack of data on the digestibility of energy and amino acids in fermented soybean meal. Two experiments were, therefore, conducted to measure the concentration of DE and ME and the digestibility of amino acids in fermented soybean meal and to compare these values to values obtained in conventional soybean meal and fish meal.

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Digestibility of energy in Dried Fermentation Biomass, Peptone 50, PEP2+, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs

Dried Fermentation Biomass (Ajinomoto Heartland LLC) is a co-product of the commercial production of lysine. Peptone 50 and PEP2+ (TechMix LLC) are co-products of heparin production for the human pharmaceutical industry. The latter two products are produced from hydrolyzed pig intestines that are co-dried with a vegetable protein (Peptone 50) or enzymatically processed vegetable proteins (PEP2+). These co-products are possible replacements for fish meal in weanling pig diets.

An experiment was conducted to measure the digestibility of energy and the concentration of digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in Dried Fermentation Biomass, Peptone 50, PEP2+, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs.

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Nutrient and Energy Utilization by Swine

Stein, H. H. 2010. Nutrient and energy utilization by swine. Pages 31-42 in Proc. 26th annual North Carolina Swine Nutrition conference, Nov. 10, 2010. Raleigh, NC. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in fibrous feed ingredients by Meishan and Yorkshire pigs

Urriola, P. E. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in fibrous feed ingredients by Meishan and Yorkshire pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):89 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Phosphorus and energy digestibility in enzyme treated soybean meal

Goebel, K. P. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Phosphorus and energy digestibility in enzyme treated soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci. 88(E-Suppl. 3):86 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of liquid and fermented liquid feeding on energy, dry matter, protein and phosphorus digestibility by growing pigs

Pedersen, C. and H. H. Stein. 2010. Effects of liquid and fermented liquid feeding on energy, dry matter, protein and phosphorus digestibility by growing pigs. Livest. Sci. 134:59-61. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs

Urriola, P. E., and H. H. Stein. 2010. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1454-1462. Link to full text (.pdf)

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A novel source of high-protein distillers dried grains

Buhler, Inc. of Minneapolis, Minnesota has developed a new fractionation process to more efficiently produce ethanol from corn. In this process, the germ is removed from the corn grain and the degermed grain is passed through roller mills and aspirators to remove the bran. The endosperm is fermented to produce ethanol, and the rest of the grain is left as a co-product, referred to here as HP-DDGBuhler.

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Effects of dietary concentration of P and microbial phytase on the digestibility of amino acids and energy by growing pigs

Pahm, A. A., G. I. Petersen, N. R. Augspurger, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Effects of dietary concentration of P and microbial phytase on the digestibility of amino acids and energy by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):92 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of liquid and fermented liquid feeding on energy, DM, and nutrient digestibility by growing pigs

Pedersen, C., and H. H. Stein. 2009. Effects of liquid and fermented liquid feeding on energy, DM, and nutrient digestibility by growing pigs. In Torrallardona (ed): XI International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs, Barcelona, May 20-22, 2009.

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Amino acid and energy digestibility in soybean meal from high protein and low oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans fed to growing pigs

Baker, K. M., and H. H. Stein. 2008. Amino acid and energy digestibility in soybean meal from high protein and low oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86(E-Suppl. 2):179 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Amino acid and energy digestibility in NutriDense corn and other cereal grains fed to growing pigs

Pedersen, C., M. G. Boersma and H. H. Stein. 2006. Amino acid and energy digestibility in NutriDense corn and other cereal grains fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 84(Suppl. 1):286 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Digestible and metabolizable energy in ten samples of DDGS fed to growing pigs

Pedersen, C., M. G. Boersma, and H. H. Stein. 2006. Digestible and metabolizable energy in ten samples of DDGS fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 84 (Suppl. 2):120 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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