Growth performance

Effects of Dakota Gold and conventional distillers dried grains with solubles on wean to finish growth performance and carcass characteristics of pigs fed diets provided as pellets or in a meal form

Rodriguez, D. A., S. A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Effects of Dakota Gold and conventional distillers dried grains with solubles on wean to finish growth performance and carcass characteristics of pigs fed diets provided as pellets or in a meal form. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):141-142 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Impact of formaldehyde treated pig feed containing spray dried plasma on weaned pig growth performance

Campbell, J. M., J. D. Crenshaw, J. Polo, D. Mellick, M. Bienhoff, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Impact of formaldehyde treated pig feed containing spray dried plasma on weaned pig growth performance. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):138-139 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Chemical analysis of formaldehyde treated spray dried plasma and effects on weaned pig growth performance when included in diets

Campbell, J. M., J. D. Crenshaw, J. Polo, D. Mellick, M. Bienhoff, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Chemical analysis of formaldehyde treated spray dried plasma and effects on weaned pig growth performance when included in diets. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):138 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Copper hydroxychloride improves growth performance and reduces diarrhea frequency of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet

Espinosa, C. D., S. R. Fry, J. L. Usry, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Copper hydroxychloride improves growth performance and reduces diarrhea frequency of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):131-132 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Requirement for digestible calcium at different dietary concentrations of digestible phosphorus indicated by growth performance and bone ash of 50 to 85 kg pigs

Lagos, L. V., C. L. Walk, and H. H. Stein. 2018. Requirement for digestible calcium at different dietary concentrations of digestible phosphorus indicated by growth performance and bone ash of 50 to 85 kg pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96(Suppl. 2):130-131 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of GraINzyme and AxtraPhy phytases in restoring performance and bone ash in pigs fed low-phosphorus and calcium diets

Last month's newsletter included a research report on research into a novel E. coli phytase expressed in corn, called GraINzyme. Results of that research indicated that adding GraINzyme phytase to diets fed to young growing pigs increased growth performance, digestibility of calcium and phosphorus, and bone mineralization. The comparative effects of GraINzyme and a commercial phytase was not tested in the previous study. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to compare effects of addition of GraINzyme phytase to the commercial phytase AxtraPhy in diets fed to growing pigs.

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Growth performance, carcass quality, fresh belly characteristics, and commercial bacon slicing yields of growing-finishing pigs fed a subtherapeutic dose of an antibiotic, a natural antimicrobial, or not fed an antibiotic or antimicrobial

Lowell, J. E., B. M. Bohrer, K. B. Wilson, M. F. Overholt, B. N. Harsh, H. H. Stein, A. C. Dilger, and D. D. Boler. 2018. Growth performance, carcass quality, fresh belly characteristics, and commercial bacon slicing yields of growing-finishing pigs fed a subtherapeutic dose of an antibiotic, a natural antimicrobial, or not fed an antibiotic or antimicrobial. Meat Sci. 136:93-103. Link to abstract

Copper hydroxychloride improves growth performance and reduces diarrhea frequency of weanling pigs fed a corn–soybean meal diet but does not change apparent total tract digestibility of energy and acid hydrolyzed ether extract

Espinosa, C. D., R. S. Fry, J. L. Usry, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Copper hydroxychloride improves growth performance and reduces diarrhea frequency of weanling pigs fed a corn–soybean meal diet but does not change apparent total tract digestibility of energy and acid hydrolyzed ether extract. J. Anim. Sci. 95:5447-5454. Link to abstract

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Inclusion of excess dietary calcium in diets for 100- to 130-kg growing pigs reduces feed intake and daily gain if dietary phosphorus is at or below the requirement

Merriman, L. A., C. L. Walk, M. R. Murphy, C. M. Parsons, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Inclusion of excess dietary calcium in diets for 100- to 130-kg growing pigs reduces feed intake and daily gain if dietary phosphorus is at or below the requirement. J. Anim. Sci. 95:5439-5446. Link to abstract

Effects of Calmin on energy, calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen balance and on growth performance of weanling pigs

Calmin is a calcium supplement produced from sea minerals. It also contains 6% magnesium, which may increase calcium absorption. Calmin has been used as a rumen buffer in dairy cows, but limited data are available for pigs. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the effect of feeding diets containing Calmin on calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen balance, energy balance, and growth performance of weanling pigs.

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Effects of different levels of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance and carcass quality of pigs

Rice bran is the main coproduct of the production of white rice for human consumption, and is used in livestock diets around the world. Rice bran can be full fat (FFRB), with 14 to 25% fat, or defatted (DFRB), containing 3 to 5% fat.

The type of fat in the diet affects the quality of fat in the pig, because pigs deposit fatty acids in approximately the same proportions as they exist in the diet. A high consumption of unsaturated fat can inhibit the pig's own synthesis of fat, which tends to be more saturated. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids  in fat can be expressed using the iodine value (IV), where high IVs correspond to more unsaturated fat. Increased IV in pig fat can lead to softer bellies, which are less valuable due to reduced shelf life, increased susceptibility to oxidative damage, and reduced belly sliceability.

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Effects of Dakota Gold distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and conventional DDGS on growth performance and carcass quality of pigs fed diets as meal or as pellets

Dakota Gold is a low-oil source of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) produced using a cold-fermentation process. Recent research conducted by the Stein Monogastric Nutrition Laboratory has demonstrated that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids is greater in Dakota Gold than in conventional DDGS, but Dakota Gold contains less metabolizable energy (ME) than conventional DDGS.

An experiment was conducted to determine effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feeding Dakota Gold or conventional DDGS to pigs from weaning to market. Because limited information exists about effects of pelleting on growth performance of pigs fed diets that contain DDGS, this research also tested the effects of feeding diets containing either Dakota Gold or conventional DDGS in a meal form or in a pelleted form.

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Effects of graded levels of an Escherichia coli phytase on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus, and on bone parameters of weanling pigs fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal based diets

She, Y., Y. Liu, J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effects of graded levels of an Escherichia coli phytase on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus, and on bone parameters of weanling pigs fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal based diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 232:102-109. Link to abstract

Effect of particle size of soy protein concentrate on amino acid digestibility and concentration of metabolizable energy and effects of soy protein concentrate on growth performance of weanling pigs

Casas, G. A., C. Huang, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effect of particle size of soy protein concentrate on amino acid digestibility and concentration of metabolizable energy and effects of soy protein concentrate on growth performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 95(Suppl. 5):148 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of a 3 strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial and dietary fiber concentration on growth performance and expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids in weanling pigs

Jaworski, N. W., A. Owusu-Asiedu, M. C. Walsh, J. C. McCann, J. J. Loor, and H. H. Stein. 2017. Effects of a 3 strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial and dietary fiber concentration on growth performance and expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci 95:308-319. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

Pedersen, T. F., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds. J. Anim. Sci 94:5206-5218. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect of adding tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to diets for weanling pigs

Copper is an essential micronutrient for animals. It is involved in cellular respiration and connective tissue development as well as being an essential component of several enzymes. High doses of copper—about 20 times the nutritional requirement—have been shown to improve growth performance in pigs. This may be because copper has an antimicrobial effect in the intestinal tract.

When supplemental copper is added to pig diets, it is usually in the form of copper sulfate. However, another form called tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) has been shown to be equally effective and may be  more bioavailable, but it is not yet known how much TBCC should be fed to optimize performance. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding 100 or 200 mg/kg TBCC to diets fed to weanling pigs.

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Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Anim. Prod. Sci. 56:1312-1316. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs

Casas, G. A. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:4179-4187. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Particle size of calcium carbonate does not affect apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium, retention of calcium, or growth performance of growing pigs

Merriman, L. A. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Particle size of calcium carbonate does not affect apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium, retention of calcium, or growth performance of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:3844-3850. Link to full text (.pdf)

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