Growth performance

Complete replacement of soybean meal in pig diets with hydrolyzed feather meal with blood by amino acid supplementation based on standardized ileal amino acid digestibility

Brotzge, S. D., L. I. Chiba, C. K. Adhikari, H. H. Stein, S. P. Rodning, and E. G. Welles. 2014. Complete replacement of soybean meal in pig diets with hydrolyzed feather meal with blood by amino acid supplementation based on standardized ileal amino acid digestibility. Livest. Sci. 163:85-93. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of Caromic 105 on growth performance of weanling pigs

The carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua) is an evergreen native to the Mediterranean area. Its fruit, technically a legume, consists of leathery brown pods that contain hard brown seeds in a sweet pulp. The pods can be crushed, with or without the seeds, to produce a meal that is fed to animals. Because carob pod meal contains 40-45% sugars, it promotes feed intake and adds energy to the diet. Carob pods also contain tannins. As inclusion rates of carob pod meal increase, the tannins can inhibit nutrient digestibility, which limits carob inclusion in swine diets. However, at lower inclusion rates, carob pod meal can reduce the incidence of diarrhea in weanling pigs due to the tannins' effect on the intestinal mucosa.

Caromic 105 is a deseeded, toasted, micronized carob pod meal product. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Caromic 105 on growth performance of weanling pigs.

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Performance and carcass characteristics of growing and finishing pigs fed diets containing high protein or conventional canola meal

Canola meal can be used as a source of protein in swine diets, but conventional canola meal contains less protein than soybean meal. In recent years, new varieties of canola have been developed with seeds that contain more protein and less fiber than conventional canola seeds. The meal from these new varieties of canola has a protein content similar to that of soybean meal.

Previous research at the University of Illinois demonstrated that diets containing at least 30% high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV) could be fed to nursery pigs without reducing growth performance. It has not yet been determined how much soybean meal can be replaced by conventional or high protein canola meal in diets for growing-finishing pigs without affecting growth performance or carcass characteristics. Therefore, an experiment was performed to determine the optimum inclusion rate of high-protein and conventional meal in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs.

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Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from high protein, low oligosaccharide, or conventional varieties of soybeans and fed to weanling pigs

Baker, K. M., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from high protein, low oligosaccharide, or conventional varieties of soybeans and fed to weanling pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 188:64-73. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Reducing feed particle size may enhance performance

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Reducing feed particle size may enhance performance. Page 12 in National Hog Farmer, December 15, 2013. Link to full text

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Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on the digestibility of energy and nutrients and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs

Rojas, O. J., and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on the digestibility of energy and nutrients and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Proceedings of the 2013 Allen D. Leman Swine conference, St. Paul, Minnesota, September 14-17, 2013. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of different particle sizes of corn on feed efficiency in weanling pigs

Grinding of feedstuffs to small particle sizes is a low-cost way to increase their energy and nutrient digestibility. Currently, nutritionists recommend feeding corn ground to an average particle size of 650 to 700 µm. However, it may be advisable to formulate diets containing corn ground to smaller particle sizes due to the greater metabolizable energy (ME) values of these diets. A previous experiment conducted by Rojas and Stein at the University of Illinois demonstrated that when diets are formulated to contain the same amount of metabolizable energy, feeding diets containing corn ground to different sizes to weanling pigs did not have a negative effect on growth performance.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that when diets are not adjusted to contain equivalent amounts of metabolizable energy, weanling pigs fed diets containing corn ground to smaller particles sizes will have an improved gain to feed ratio relative to pigs fed corn containing corn ground to larger particle sizes.

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Effects of including conventional or high protein canola meals in diets for nursery pigs

Canola meal is a by-product of the canola oil industry. Conventional canola meal contains about 37% crude protein, and is a good protein source for swine diets. New varieties of canola with seeds that contain less fiber and more protein than conventional canola seeds have been hybridized. The meals produced from these new hybrids have a crude protein content similar to that of dehulled soybean meal (Table 1). No data exist on how feeding these high protein canola meals to weanling pigs affects growth performance. Inclusion levels also have not been established for the use of these products in nursery diets.

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect on growth performance of including conventional or high protein canola meals at different levels in diets fed to weanling pigs.

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Growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing copra meal, palm kernel expellers, or palm kernel meal

Jaworski, N. W., J. C. González-Vega, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing copra meal, palm kernel expellers, or palm kernel meal. J. Anim. Sci 91(E-Suppl. 2):706 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Effects of adjusting the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) amino acids in heat damaged soybean meal (SBM) or distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets on performance of weanling pigs

Almeida, F. N., J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of adjusting the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) amino acids in heat damaged soybean meal (SBM) or distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets on performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(E-Suppl. 2):686 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Effects of dietary soybean oil on pig growth performance, retention of protein, lipids, and energy, and the net energy of corn in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs

Kil, D. Y., F. Ji, L. L. Stewart, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of dietary soybean oil on pig growth performance, retention of protein, lipids, and energy, and the net energy of corn in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:3283-3290. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of different corn particle sizes on growth performance for weanling pigs

The metabolizable energy content of corn ground to smaller particle sizes is greater than that of corn ground to larger particle sizes, because the reduced particle size provides more surface area for digestive enzymes to act on. This results in more starch being digested in the small intestine with a subsequent absorption of glucose.

Currently, nutritionists recommend feeding corn ground to an average particle size of 650 to 700 µm. However, it may be advisable to formulate diets containing corn ground to smaller particle sizes due to the greater ME in these diets. If diets are formulated to a constant ME, the inclusion of added fat can be reduced if corn ground to a smaller particle size is used.

In a previous experiment, growth performance did not differ among growing-finishing pigs (average initial body weight: 32 kg) fed diets containing corn ground to particle sizes ranging from 339 to 865 µm if diets were formulated to the same ME by reducing the concentration of added fat as corn particle size was reduced. The experiment discussed in this report was conducted to test the hypothesis that added fat can be reduced in diets fed to weanling pigs if corn ground to a smaller particle size is used.

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Effects of dietary soybean hulls and wheat middlings on body composition, nutrient and energy retention, and the net energy of diets and ingredients fed to growing and finishing pigs

Stewart, L. L., D. Y. Kil, F. Ji, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of dietary soybean hulls and wheat middlings on body composition, nutrient and energy retention, and the net energy of diets and ingredients fed to growing and finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2756-2765. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effect on growth performance and carcass characteristics of reducing the particle size of corn fed to growing pigs

Grinding feedstuffs increases their energy and nutrient digestibility, because the reduced particle size provides more surface area for digestive enzymes and microbes to act on. Currently, nutritionists recommend feeding corn ground to an average particle size of 650 to 700 µm. However, research has shown that corn ground to smaller particle sizes contains more metabolizable energy than corn ground to larger particle sizes, which leads to greater feed efficiency.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that diets containing corn ground to reduced particle size can be formulated with less fat than diets containing corn ground to a greater particle size without compromising growth performance or carcass characteristics.

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Effects of including microbial phytase in diets fed to pigs and broilers

Lowell, J. E., M. Song, J. K. Mathai, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of including microbial phytase in diets fed to pigs and broilers. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):121 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Inclusion of fermented soybean meal, chicken meal, or poultry by-product meal in phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 diets fed to weanling pigs

Rojas Martinez, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Inclusion of fermented soybean meal, chicken meal, or poultry by-product meal in phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 diets fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):115 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of using palm kernel expellers in phase 2 diets fed to weanling pigs

Palm kernel expellers is a coproduct of the production of palm kernel oil. Unlike palm kernel meal, which is produced after the oil is removed from the fruits of oil palms using solvent extraction, palm kernel expellers are produced via mechanical extraction. The lysine content of palm kernel expellers is low relative to soybean meal. Additionally, the high fiber content of palm kernel expellers means that it contains less digestible and metabolizable energy than soybean meal or corn. These factors limit the inclusion rate of palm kernel expellers in swine diets.  However, despite these limitations, palm kernel expellers can provide significant protein in swine diets and may be used to reduce feed costs.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that palm kernel expellers may replace some corn and soybean meal in phase 2 diets fed to weanling pigs without negatively affecting growth performance.

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Up to 30% corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing–finishing pigs without affecting pig growth performance, carcass composition, or pork fat quality

Lee, J. W., F. K. McKeith, and H. H. Stein. 2012. Up to 30% corn germ may be included in diets fed to growing–finishing pigs without affecting pig growth performance, carcass composition, or pork fat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 90:4933-4942. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of using copra meal in phase 2 diets fed to weanling pigs

Copra meal is a coproduct of the production of coconut oil. Although the amino acid profile and digestibility in copra meal are less favorable than in soybean meal, it can provide significant protein and energy in swine diets and may be used to reduce feed costs.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that copra meal may replace some corn and soybean meal in phase 2 diets fed to weanling pigs without negatively affecting growth performance.

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Effects of using palm kernel meal in phase 2 diets fed to weanling pigs

Palm kernel meal is a coproduct of the production of palm kernel oil. Although the amino acid profile and digestibility in palm kernel meal are less favorable than in soybean meal, it can provide significant protein in swine diets and may be used to reduce feed costs.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that palm kernel meal may replace some corn and soybean meal in phase 2 diets fed to weanling pigs without negatively affecting growth performance.

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