Growth performance

Requirement for digestible calcium by eleven- to twenty-five–kg pigs as determined by growth performance, bone ash concentration, calcium and phosphorus balances, and expression of genes involved in transport of calcium in intestinal and kidney cells

González-Vega, J. C., Y. Liu, J. C. McCann, C. L. Walk, J. J. Loor, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Requirement for digestible calcium by eleven- to twenty-five–kilogram pigs as determined by growth performance, bone ash concentration, calcium and phosphorus balances, and expression of genes involved in transport of calcium in intestinal and kidney cells. J. Anim. Sci. 94:3321-3334. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of high protein canola meal on digestibility of phosphorus and growth performance of weanling pigs

She, Y., H. H. Salgado, D. Li, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of high protein canola meal on digestibility of phosphorus and growth performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(E-Suppl. 5):457 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran and microbial xylanase on growth performance of weanling pigs

Casas, G. A. and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran and microbial xylanase on growth performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(E-Suppl. 5):441 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of using soy protein concentrate as a protein source in diets fed to weanling pigs

Because of the presence of antinutritional factors, the use of soybean meal in weanling pig diets is limited. Animal protein sources can be used, but their cost is high relative to plant protein sources. Therefore, it is economically advantageous to find high quality plant protein sources that weanling pigs can tolerate.

Soybean meal can be processed in various ways to remove or reduce antinutritional factors. One way is to use an alcohol extraction process to remove water-soluble carbohydrates, followed by heat treatment. This process produces soy protein concentrate. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding a soy protein concentrate product called X-SOY 200 on growth performance and blood parameters in weanling pigs.

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Effects of pelleting diets without or with distillers’ dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and gastrointestinal weights of growing–finishing barrows and gilts

Overholt, M. F., J. E. Lowell, E. K. Arkfeld, I. M. Grossman, H. H. Stein, A. C. Dilger and D. D. Boler. 2016. Effects of pelleting diets without or with distillers’ dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and gastrointestinal weights of growing–finishing barrows and gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 94:2172-2183. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance of weanling pigs

Rice bran is the brown outer layer of brown rice, which is removed from brown rice to produce white polished rice for human consumption. Rice bran may be full fat, containing 14 to 25% fat, or defatted, which reduces the concentration of fat to less than 5%.

Rice bran has a high concentration of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), primarily arabinoxylan and cellulose. NSPs decrease nutrient digestibility and thus limit the inclusion of rice bran in weanling pig diets. Recent data from our laboratory indicate that adding exogenous xylanase to diets containing full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) increases the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of increased inclusion levels of FFRB or DFRB to diets without or with exogenous xylanase on growth performance.

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Effects of a novel phytase on growth performance and metacarpal bone ash in weanling pigs

Liu, Y., J. C. González-Vega, M. Vázquez-Añón, J. Zhao, J. Escobar, F. N. Almeida, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of a novel phytase on growth performance and metacarpal bone ash in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94(Suppl. 2):111-112 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Requirement for digestible calcium by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different dietary concentration of phosphorus by growth performance and bone ash concentration

An excess of calcium in swine diets may increase excretion of phosphorus due to formation of Ca-P complexes. Therefore, when formulating diets for pigs, it is important to consider the ratio of calcium to phosphorus. The proper ratio should ensure that both minerals are maximally utilized in the bodies of the pigs.

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Effects of particle size of yellow dent corn on physical characteristics of diets and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing–finishing pigs

Rojas, O. J., Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2016. Effects of particle size of yellow dent corn on physical characteristics of diets and growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing–finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94:619-628. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect of a 3 strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance and intestinal concentrations of volatile fatty acids in nursery pigs fed low- or high-fiber diets

Increasing the inclusion of dietary fiber in nursery pig diets may stimulate beneficial gut microbiota and reduce post-weaning diarrhea. However, the digestibility of nutrients and energy is decreased in high fiber diets. Nursery pigs fed diets high in fiber have been shown to have reduced ADFI and G:F.

Bacillus-based direct-fed microbials (DFM) secrete a large amount and a wide variety of fiber degrading enzymes. It is thought that feeding DFM may offset some of the negative effects of  a high fiber diet. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that addition of a Bacillus-based DFM will increase fermentation of dietary fiber and improve growth performance when fed to nursery pigs.

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Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2015. Use of feed technology to improve the nutritional value of feed ingredients. Page 23 in Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia, October 26-28, 2015. (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of pelleting growing-finishing swine diets on growth, carcass, and bacon characteristics

Boler, D. D., M. F. Overholt, J. E. Lowell, A. C. Dilger, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of pelleting growing-finishing swine diets on growth, carcass, and bacon characteristics. Pages 23-30 in Proc. Midwest Swine Nutr. Conf. Indianapolis, IN, Sep. 10, 2015. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effect of particle size of calcium carbonate on growth performance in growing pigs

In poultry, the particle size of inorganic calcium sources has been shown to affect calcium retention and eggshell quality. However, little is known about the effect of particle size of inorganic calcium fed to pigs. Results of a previous experiment conducted in the Stein Monogastric Nutrition Lab indicated that calcium digestibility and retention were not affected by the particle size of supplemental calcium carbonate. A follow-up study was conducted to test the hypothesis that calcium carbonate particle does not affect growth performance by weanling pigs.

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Growth performance and bone mineralization in weanling pigs fed diets containing different levels of digestible calcium and digestible phosphorus

It is important to include calcium and phosphorus in the diets in the proper proportions because the excess or deficiency of one mineral may affect the utilization of the other. Calcium requirements in the 2012 NRC are based on a model, which used a 2.15 ratio of total calcium to standardized total tract digestible (STTD) phosphorus. An optimal ratio of STTD calcium to STTD phosphorus has not been reported because not enough data exist on the standardized total tract digestibility of calcium. However, recent studies conducted by the Stein Monogastric Nutrition Lab have determined values for STTD calcium for several calcium sources. With these data, it is possible to determine the requirement for STTD calcium. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the requirement of STTD calcium to maximize growth performance and bone ash in 11 to 25 kg pigs.

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Effect of a 3-strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance and volatile fatty acid production in nursery pigs fed low or high fiber diets

Jaworski, N. W., A. Owusu-Asiedu, A. Awati, A. Thomas, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effect of a 3-strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance and volatile fatty acid production in nursery pigs fed low or high fiber diets. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. s3):856 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect of a 3-strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance, volatile fatty acid production, carcass characteristics, and gastrointestinal tract weights in growing-finishing pigs fed low or high fiber diets

Jaworski, N. W., A. Owusu-Asiedu, A. Awati, A. Thomas, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effect of a 3-strain Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance, volatile fatty acid production, carcass characteristics, and gastrointestinal tract weights in growing-finishing pigs fed low or high fiber diets. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. s3):856 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of superdosing of microbial phytase in diets for weanling pigs

Crenshaw, T. D., O. Adeola, M. J. Azain, S. K. Baidoo, S. D. Carter, G. M. Hill, S. W. Kim, P. S. Miller, M. C. Shannon, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of superdosing of microbial phytase in diets for weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. s3):227 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effects of high-protein or conventional canola meal on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood characteristics of weanling pigs

Parr, C. K., Y. Liu, C. M. Parsons, and H. H. Stein. 2015. Effects of high-protein or conventional canola meal on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood characteristics of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93:2165-2173. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of feeding canola meal from high-protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cutability of pigs

Little, K. L., B. M. Bohrer, T. Maison, Y. Liu, H. H. Stein and D. D. Boler. 2015. Effects of feeding canola meal from high-protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cutability of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93:1284-1297. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effects of diet form and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and visceral weights of growing-finishing pigs

Overholt, M. F., J. E. Lowell, I. M. Grossman, H. H. Stein, A. C. Dilger, and D. D. Boler. 2015. Effects of diet form and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and visceral weights of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93(Suppl. 2):186-187 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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