Corn

Effects of different particle sizes of corn on feed efficiency in weanling pigs

Grinding of feedstuffs to small particle sizes is a low-cost way to increase their energy and nutrient digestibility. Currently, nutritionists recommend feeding corn ground to an average particle size of 650 to 700 µm. However, it may be advisable to formulate diets containing corn ground to smaller particle sizes due to the greater metabolizable energy (ME) values of these diets. A previous experiment conducted by Rojas and Stein at the University of Illinois demonstrated that when diets are formulated to contain the same amount of metabolizable energy, feeding diets containing corn ground to different sizes to weanling pigs did not have a negative effect on growth performance.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that when diets are not adjusted to contain equivalent amounts of metabolizable energy, weanling pigs fed diets containing corn ground to smaller particles sizes will have an improved gain to feed ratio relative to pigs fed corn containing corn ground to larger particle sizes.

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Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on energy, phosphorus, and amino acid by growing pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Effects of reducing the particle size of corn on energy, phosphorus, and amino acid by growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci 91(E-Suppl. 2):687 (Abstr.) Link to abstract

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Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles

Lee, J. W., D. Y. Kil, B. D. Keever, J. Killefer, F. K. McKeith, R. C. Sulabo, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2426-2437. Link to full text (.pdf)

Effect on growth performance and carcass characteristics of reducing the particle size of corn fed to growing pigs

Grinding feedstuffs increases their energy and nutrient digestibility, because the reduced particle size provides more surface area for digestive enzymes and microbes to act on. Currently, nutritionists recommend feeding corn ground to an average particle size of 650 to 700 µm. However, research has shown that corn ground to smaller particle sizes contains more metabolizable energy than corn ground to larger particle sizes, which leads to greater feed efficiency.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that diets containing corn ground to reduced particle size can be formulated with less fat than diets containing corn ground to a greater particle size without compromising growth performance or carcass characteristics.

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Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs

Rojas, O. J. and H. H. Stein. 2013. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn co-products, and bakery meal fed to pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91(Suppl. 2):122 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Effect on amino acid digestibility of reducing the particle size of corn fed to growing pigs

Research has shown that grinding cereal grains in diets fed to pigs into smaller particle sizes improves growth performance. Feed ground to smaller particle sizes has more surface area on which digestive enzymes can work, so digestibility of energy and nutrients that are enzymatically digested may also be improved. Previous research at the University of Illinois indicated that particle size had no effect on the digestibility of phosphorus, but that decreasing particle size increased energy digestibility in corn in the range of 338.5 μm to 864.5 μm.

However, it is not known if reduced particle size also increases amino acid digestibility. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in corn that was ground to different particle sizes and fed to growing pigs.

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Dietary soybean oil and choice white grease improve apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in swine diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles

Kil, D. Y. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Dietary soybean oil and choice white grease improve apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in swine diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles. Rev. Colomb. Cienc. Pecu. 24:248-253. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Metabolizable energy and digestibility of carbohydrates in cereal grains fed to growing pigs

Cervantes-Pahm, S. K. and H. H. Stein. 2011. Metabolizable energy and digestibility of carbohydrates in cereal grains fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89(E-Suppl. 1):332-333 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Particle size reductions may help lower feed costs

By Dr. Hans H. Stein

December, 2010

It is well known that corn needs to be ground to be effectively utilized by pigs. For many years it has been common practice to recommend grinding to an average particle size between 650 and 700 microns. This particle size was based on research showing that if grain is ground to a smaller particle size, then problems with ulcers in pigs may increase.

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Evaluation of growth performance and carcass characteristics in pigs fed two varieties of genetically modified corn

Most corn hybrids grown in the US are genetically modified to resist certain pests or to tolerate certain herbicides. Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the nutritional value of corn that is genetically modified for pest resistance, but there are no published reports about feeding corn that has been modified for both pest resistance and insecticide tolerance to pigs. Investigation into the nutritional value of such corn is, however, warranted, because the use of crops with multiply stacked traits is rapidly increasing; approximately 35 million acres of crops with double- and triple-stacked traits were planted in the United States in 2006.

Two experiments were, therefore, conducted to determine if the nutritional value of corn grain with multiple genetically modified traits is different from that of nontransgenic corn. The hypothesis in both experiments was that pigs fed transgenic corn would not differ in growth performance or carcass characteristics from pigs fed nontransgenic corn.

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Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs

Urriola, P. E., and H. H. Stein. 2010. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1454-1462. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Effects of dietary lipids on net energy of corn in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs

Kil, D. Y., F. Ji, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, L. L. Stewart, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2009. Effects of dietary lipids on net energy of corn in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):98-99 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Nucleotide deficiencies in starter diets for weanling pigs

Mateo, C. D. and H. H. Stein. 2004. Page 55 in Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed Industry. Proc. Alltech's 20th Annual Symp., Lexington, KY, USA, May 23-26, 2004, Suppl. 1 (Abstr.) Link to abstract (.pdf)

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Ileal starch, apparent protein, and true protein digestibility of different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs

Andersen, L. L., J. L. Snow, P. K. Ku, H. H. Stein, M. Allen, and N. L. Trottier. 2000. Ileal starch, apparent protein, and true protein digestibility of different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 78(Suppl. 2):70 (Abstr.)

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Apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities of different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs

Snow, J. L., P. K. Ku, H. H. Stein, M. Allen, and N. L. Trottier. 1998. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities of different corn hybrids fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 76(Suppl. 1):62 (Abstr.)

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A novel approach for estimating DE and ME values for corn

Carr, S. N., H. H. Stein, R. A. Easter, and N. Bajjalieh. 1995. A novel approach for estimating DE and ME values for corn. J. Anim. Sci. 73(Suppl. 1):79 (Abstr.)

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Use of distillers co-products in diets fed to swine.

Stein, H. H. 2008. Use of distillers co-products in diets fed to swine. Pages 79 - 97 in Using Distillers Grains in the US and International Livestock and Poultry Industries. Babcock, B. A., D. J. Hayes, and J. D. Lawrence, ed. Midwest Agribusiness Trade and Information Center, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.  Link to full text (.pdf)

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The nutritional value of high-oil corn

Stein, H. H., R. A. Easter, S. N. Carr, and K. Soltwedel. 1995. The nutritional value of high-oil corn. In: University of Illinois, Swine Research Reports, p. 18. Link to full text (.pdf)

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Nutritional value of high oil corn

Stein, H. H. 1994. Nutritional value of high oil corn. University of Illinois Cooperative Extension Swine Report #112.

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