Lee

Concentration of net energy in corn without or with microbial phytase fed to group-housed pigs

Corn is the primary grain used in pig diets and provides most energy to the diets. Because energy is the most expensive component in diet formulation, it is critical to accurately determine energy concentrations in corn. Use of exogenous phytase in pig diets has been a standard and most phytase is expected to generate extra-phosphoric effects that result in increases in minerals, amino acid, or energy digestibility. Therefore, phytase companies have provided customers with matrix values that can be used for down specs of energy and nutrients in diet formulation. It is thus important to confirm if dietary phytase releases energy and other nutrients as suggested before using them. To our knowledge, however, there is no information on how much phytase can increase net energy (NE) in corn when fed to group-housed pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that addition of microbial phytase to a corn-based diet increased the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) and concentration of NE by group-housed growing pigs.

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Both pelleting and reducing particle size of corn increase net energy and digestibility of amino acids and fat in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs

Pelleting and reducing particle size of grains often improve nutrient digestibility by pigs. Pelleting may also reduce particle size of grains, and it is not known if improvements in nutrient digestibility obtained by reducing the particle size of grain and improvements obtained by pelleting are additive or if there are interactions between particle size reduction and pelleting. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that particle size reduction and pelleting, separately or in combination, increase the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of starch, the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA), N balance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), fiber, and fat, and net energy (NE) in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs.

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Evaluation of soybean expellers fed to growing pigs

Cristobal, M., S. A. Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2023. Evaluation of soybean expellers fed to growing pigs. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, March 23, 2023.

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Effects of different protein sources in low-phosphorus diets on the basal endogenous loss of phosphorus by growing pigs

Phosphorus is one of the most expensive nutrients in swine diets. Use of standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, instead of apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), may reduce the cost of diets because STTD values, unlike ATTD values, are additive in mixed diets. Values for STTD of P can be determined by correcting ATTD of P for the basal endogenous loss of P. The basal endogenous loss of P is estimated by using a P-free diet. Gelatin has been widely used in P-free diets because it does not contain any P and is a good source of protein. However, gelatin products can make diets dusty and sticky which can reduce the palatability of these diets and make them hard to work with. In addition, feeding pigs with diets containing no P may cause health issues in pigs. Blood plasma, casein, and potato protein concentrate are possible protein alternatives to gelatin because the P in blood plasma and casein is close to 100% digestible and potato protein concentrate provides very little P. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the basal endogenous loss of P from pigs fed a diet containing blood plasma, casein, or potato protein concentrate are not different from that of pigs fed a diet containing gelatin.

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Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal and crystalline amino acid based diets fed to growing pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is the major source of amino acids (AA) and energy in diets for swine throughout the world. However, due to the emergence of feed-grade crystalline AA, it is estimated that SBM usage by pigs has been reduced by at least 35% over the last 25 years. Reduction on concentration of SBM and increasing the use of crystalline AA in diets may impact the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and AA. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that diets containing corn, SBM, and crystalline AA have greater AA digestibility compared with corn and SBM diets.

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Fiber in Swine Nutrition

Lancheros, J. P., C. D. Espinosa, S. A. Lee, M. S. Oliveira, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Fiber in Swine Nutrition. L. I. Chiba, editor, Sustainable Swine Nutrition. 2nd rev. ed. doi:10.1002/9781119583998.ch14. Link to full text.

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Digestibility and Availability of Nutrients in Feed Ingredients

Lee, S. A., and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility and Availability of Nutrients in Feed Ingredients. L. I. Chiba, editor, Sustainable Swine Nutrition. 2nd rev. ed. doi:10.1002/9781119583998.ch19. Link to full text.

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Mineral composition and phosphorus digestibility in feed phosphates fed to pigs and poultry

Lee, Su A, Diego A. Lopez, and Hans H. Stein. 2023. Mineral composition and phosphorus digestibility in feed phosphates fed to pigs and poultry. Anim. Biosci. 36, 2:167-174. doi.org/10.5713/ab.22.0322. Link to full text.

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Microbial phytase impact on digestibility energy in growing pigs.

Lee, S. A., D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2022 Microbial phytase impact on digestibility energy in growing pigs.  National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, Dec. 30, 2022.

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Effect of increasing microbial phytase levels on digestibility of phosphorus in field peas fed to young pigs

The majority of P in most plant feed ingredients is bound to phytate. Pigs, however, do not synthesize adequate endogenous phytate to release the P bound to phytate, which results in low digestibility of P in field peas. Values for ATTD and STTD of P in field peas without and with phytase have been reported, but there are no comparative values for the ATTD and STTD of P in field peas adding different levels of phytase. The objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of increasing levels of phytase on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in field peas fed to growing pigs.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids is not affected by reducing particle sizes or different origins of field peas fed to growing pigs

Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) have been cultivated for centuries for human consumption, due to the high nutritional quality of pea protein. However, during the last years, increasing demand for field peas for livestock feeding has developed a market in Canada, Europe, and the U.S. Therefore, as is the case with some feed ingredients, differences in soil, varieties, agronomic practices, and growing method may change the nutritional characteristics of the peas as well as the digestibility of nutrients. Besides that, differences in the particle size of field peas may change the digestibility of nutrients. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in field peas is affected by the particle size of the field peas and the region where the field peas were grown.

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Effects of Different Watering Options on Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and net Energy in Diets fed to Growing Pigs

Lee, Su A, Diego A. Rodriguez, Hans H. Stein. 2022. Effects of Different Watering Options on Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and net Energy in Diets fed to Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 100, (Suppl. 3) 118, doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac247.227. Link to full text.

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Effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) and 1-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-OH-D3) on serum bone biomarkers and calcium and phosphorus balance and concentrations of energy in diets without or with microbial phytase fed to sows in late gestation

Lee, Su A , Leidy J. Torres-Mendoza, and Hans H. Stein1. 2022. Effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) and 1-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-OH-D3) on serum bone biomarkers and calcium and phosphorus balance and concentrations of energy in diets without or with microbial phytase fed to sows in late gestation. Journal of Animal Science, 2022, 100, 1–8. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac299.

Microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium in pigs fed diets containing phytate phosphorus at commercial levels

Nelson, Megan E., Su A Lee, Yueming Dersjant-Li, Janet Remus, and Hans H. Stein. 2022. Microbial phytase reduces basal endogenous loss of calcium in pigs fed diets containing phytate phosphorus at commercial levels. Journal of Animal Science, 2022, 100, 1–7. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skac280. Link to full text.

Water source placement does not impact energy, nutrient utilization

Lee, S. A., D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Water source placement does not impact energy, nutrient utilization. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, Oct. 12, 2022.

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Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in three different sources of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) with different particle sizes fed to weanling pigs

Field peas have been produced mainly for human consumption, but lastly, the industry has been included in diets fed to livestock due to its content of starch and protein. In diets for swine, only peas that are harvested at maturity are used. Almost 80% of P in non-oilseed legumes is bound to phytate, and pigs do not synthesize an adequate amount of endogenous phytate to liberate the P bound to phytate. Therefore, the digestibility of P in field peas is relatively low. Values for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in field peas have been reported, but there are no comparative values for the ATTD and STTD of P among different varieties of field peas at different particle sizes. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in the ATTD and the STTD of P among different sources of field peas fed to young pigs and the second hypothesis was that there is a linear increase in the ATTD and STTD of P as the particle size of field peas increases.

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Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by pigs is not affected by increasing dietary calcium from deficient to excess concentrations, but phosphorus digestibility is reduced

Lee, Su A, H. H. Stein. 2022. Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by pigs is not affected by increasing dietary calcium from deficient to excess concentrations, but phosphorus digestibility is reduced. Animal Feed Science and Technology 292 (2022) 115436. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2022.115436. Link to full text.

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Vitamin D and vitamin D metabolites impact on calcium and phosphorus balance in gestating sows

Lee, S. A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Vitamin D and vitamin D metabolites impact on calcium and phosphorus balance in gestating sows. Proc. 21th Annual Midwest Swine Nutrition Conf. Danville, IN, Sep. 8, 2022. Pages 39-43. Link to full text.

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Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs

Lee, Su A, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Digestibility of amino acids is not affected by increasing calcium from deficient to over-sufficient concentration in diets fed to pigs.15th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Animal - Science Proceedings 13(Issue 2): 178 - 179. Link to abstract.

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Determination of the net energy in soybean meal fed to group-housed pigs

Lee, Su A, D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2022. Determination of the net energy in soybean meal fed to group-housed pigs. 15th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Animal - Science Proceedings 13(Issue 2): 178. Link to abstract.

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