Stein

Excessive heat treatment of distillers dried grains with solubles reduces not only amino acid digestibility but also concentrations of metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of ethanol production that is often used in diets fed to pigs because of a relatively high concentration of amino acids (AA), energy, and digestible phosphorus. However, during the cooking and drying steps, the high temperature and concentration of moisture makes DDGS susceptible to the Maillard reactions, resulting in formation of sugar-amino acid complexes. Maillard reaction products result in reduced standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA), with Lys being the most sensitive AA. However, there is limited information about how heating affects the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME). Therefore, the objective of these experiments were to test the hypothesis that both the degree of heating and the time that heat is applied will affect the concentration of DE and ME and the SID of AA in DDGS fed to growing pigs.

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Effect of decreasing protein levels in diets fed to weanling pigs on growth performance, fecal score, and carcass characteristics

Diarrhea is one of the main problems for pigs during the post-weaning period. Traditionally, antibiotic growth promoters have been used to control post-weaning diarrhea, but consumers are increasingly concerned about this practice and there is therefore an interest in feeding diets that contain no antibiotics. However, feeding pigs without antibiotic growth promoters requires alternative strategies to control post-weaning diarrhea, but feeding low protein diets may be one way to reduce the incidence of post-weaning diarrhea. However, there is a lack of knowledge about consequences of reducing the protein level in diets fed to weanling pigs.

Feeding low protein diets to pigs results in increased net energy in the diet, reduced water intake by pigs, and reduced nitrogen excretion. This will result in reduced volume of manure and also reduced concentrations of ammonium in manure. However, if formulation of low protein diets results in feeding diets with concentrations of indispensable AA that are below the requirements, deposition of protein in pigs may be greater and deposition of fat may be increased compared with pigs fed a diet containing higher level of protein. However, it is not known if feeding a diet low in protein to weanling pigs also results in changes in carcass characteristics of market pigs.

Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that feeding a low-protein diet to pigs during the post-weaning period will result in reduced diarrhea during this period, but no effects on growth performance from wean to finish and no changes in carcass composition of pigs when they reach market weight.

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Effects of microbial phytase on mucin synthesis, gastric protein hydrolysis, and degradation of phytate along the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

Mesina Von G. R., L. Vanessa Lagos, Rommel C. Sulabo, Carrie L. Walk, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of microbial phytase on mucin synthesis, gastric protein hydrolysis, and degradation of phytate along the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 2019.97:756–767. Link to full text.

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Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis on ileal digestibility of AA and total tract digestibility of CP and gross energy in diets fed to growing pigs

Blavi Laia, Jens N. Jørgensen, and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis on ileal digestibility of AA and total tract digestibility of CP and gross energy in diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 2019.97:727–734. Link to full text.

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Pork products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores that are greater than 100, but processing does not always increase amino acid scores

Pork is the most widely consumed animal meat in the world accounting for approximately 40% of the total global meat intake. Pork almost always undergoes some degree of processing prior to consumption. Consequently, thermal processing induces modification to the 3-dimentional structure of proteins, which may lead to increased digestibility of amino acids (AA).

Protein quality is evaluated in human foods by the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) methodology, which can be described as the digestibility of individual dietary indispensable AA (IAA) compared with the same IAA in 1 of the 3 reference protein patterns established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Values for DIAAS of bovine meat cooked by various techniques have been determined, yet to our knowledge, there are no reported DIAAS values for pork products and the IAA digestibility of pork after processing has not been reported.

Therefore, the objective for the present work was to determine DIAAS values for pork products, and to test the hypothesis that processing may increase protein quality.

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Degradation of dietary fiber in the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine of growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets without or with microbial xylanase

Abelilla Jerubella J.,  and Hans H. Stein. 2019. Degradation of dietary fiber in the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine of growing pigs fed corn- or wheat-based diets without or with microbial xylanase. J. Anim. Sci. 97:338–352. Link to full text.

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Microscopy and protein solubilization of digesta from pigs fed wheat, corn, or soybean meal-based diets, with or without protease and a Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial

Payling Laura, Tofuko A. Woyengo, Mogens Nielsen, Hans H. Stein, Maria C. Walsh, Luis Romero, and Susan Arent, 2019. Microscopy and protein solubilization of digesta from pigs fed wheat, corn, or soybean meal-based diets, with or without protease and a Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2019. 247:183-193. Link to full text.

Excessive heat treatment of double-low rapeseed meal reduces not only amino acid digestibility but also concentrations of metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Double-low rapeseed meal (RSM) is currently used as a protein ingredient in animal diets. Heat treatment of RSM at varying processing conditions removes the residual hexane and efficiently reduces the glucosinolate content. However, variations in heat processing temperatures and duration of heat treatment may result in Maillard reactions, resulting in the formation of sugar-amino acid complexes. Maillard reaction products result in reduced standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA), with Lys being the most sensitive AA. However, there is limited information about how heating affects the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME). Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that both the degree of heating and the time that heat is applied will affect the concentration of DE and ME and the SID of AA in double-low RSM fed to growing pigs.

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Increasing levels of microbial phytase increases the digestibility of energy and minerals in diets fed to pigs

Arredondo Mónica A., Gloria A. Casas, Hans H. Stein. 2019. Increasing levels of microbial phytase increases the digestibility of energy and minerals in diets fed to pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 248: 27 - 36. Link to full text.

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Arabinoxylan is the main polysaccharide in fiber from rice coproducts, and increased concentration of fiber decreases in vitro digestibility of dry matter

Casas Gloria A., Helle N. Lærke, Knud E. Bach Knudsen, Hans H. Stein. 2019. Arabinoxylan is the main polysaccharide in fiber from rice coproducts, and increased concentration of fiber decreases in vitro digestibility of dry matter. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 247: 255 - 261. Link to full text.

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Effects of dietary digestible calcium on growth performance and bone ash concentration in 50- to 85-kg growing pigs fed diets with different concentrations of digestible phosphorus

Lagos L. V., C. L. Walk, M. R. Murphy, H. H. Stein. 2019. Effects of dietary digestible calcium on growth performance and bone ash concentration in 50- to 85-kg growing pigs fed diets with different concentrations of digestible phosphorus. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 247: 262 - 272. Link to full text.

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Effects of inclusion rate of high fiber dietary ingredients on apparent ileal, hindgut, and total tract digestibility of dry matter and nutrients in ingredients fed to growing pigs

Navarro D. M. D. L., E. M. A. M. Bruininx, L. de Jong, H. H. Stein. 2019. Effects of inclusion rate of high fiber dietary ingredients on apparent ileal, hindgut, and total tract digestibility of dry matter and nutrients in ingredients fed to growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 248: 1 - 9. Link to full text.

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Effects of increasing concentrations of an Escherichia coli phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs

Yue She, J. Chris Sparks, and Hans H. Stein. 2018. Effects of increasing concentrations of an Escherichia coli phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the apparent total tract digestibility of energy and nutrients in corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:2804–2816.

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Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of AA and starch in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, and corn fed to growing pigs

McGhee Molly L. and Hans. H. Stein. 2018. Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of AA and starch in hybrid rye, barley, wheat, and corn fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 96:3319–3329.  Link to full text.

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Crystalline amino acids in diets used to determine the standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in feed ingredients fed to pigs do not influence calculated values for amino acid digestibility

Protein and amino acids quality in feed ingredient is most correctly evaluated by determining the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids. Experiments to determine the SID of CP and amino acids in feed ingredients often utilize semi-synthetic diets that contain the test ingredient as the sole source of CP and amino acids. Therefore, the CP and amino acid supply from experimental diets do not always meet the requirement for standardized ileal digestible amino acids by pigs and, therefore, pig growth is often limited in these experiments.

Crystalline amino acids are believed to be rapidly absorbed and 100% digestible. Addition of crystalline amino acids to diets during the adaptation or collection phase is, therefore, believed not to influence values for SID of amino acids in the test feed ingredient, but this has not been experimentally verified. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that addition of crystalline amino acids to diets during the adaptation or collection periods of digestibility studies will not influence calculated values for SID of CP and amino acids in corn and soybean meal. 

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Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal, blood meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs

Navarro D.M.D.L., J.K. Mathai, N.W. Jaworski, H.H. Stein. 2018. Amino acid digestibility in six sources of meat and bone meal, blood meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 98: 860–867. Link to full text

Canola meal produced from high-protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds may substitute soybean meal in diets for gestating and lactating sows without compromising sow or litter productivity

Yanhong Liu, Maryane S. F. Oliveira, Hans H Stein, 2018. Canola meal produced from high-protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds may substitute soybean meal in diets for gestating and lactating sows without compromising sow or litter productivity. Journal of Animal Science: 96:12, 5179–5187. Link full text.

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Influence of the concentration of dietary digestible calcium on growth performance, bone ash, and abundance of genes involved in intestinal absorption of calcium in pigs from 11 to 25 kg fed diets with different concentrations of digestible phosphorus

Requirements for P for growing pigs are expressed as the requirement for standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P, whereas requirements for Ca are usually expressed as requirements for total Ca. It is, however, recognized that diets for pigs are most accurately formulated based on a STTD Ca:STTD P ratio, and recent work has generated values for STTD of Ca in most Ca containing feed ingredients, which makes it possible to formulate diets based on STTD Ca.

Recent data from the University of Illinois have indicated that if STTD P is at the requirement, a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P that is less than 1.35:1, 1.25:1, and 1.10:1 maximizes growth performance of pigs from 25 to 50 kg, 50 to 85 kg, and 100 to 130 kg, respectively. However, the STTD Ca:STTD P ratio needed to maximize bone ash is greater than the ratio needed to maximize growth performance. An attempt to estimate the requirement for STTD Ca by pigs from 11 to 25 kg was also made, but due to a reduction in ADG and G:F as dietary Ca increased, an optimal STTD Ca:STTD P ratio could not be estimated.

Calcium may be absorbed by transcellular or paracellular transport. Transcellular transport is the primary route if dietary Ca is low, but if dietary Ca is adequate or high, Ca is mainly absorbed using the paracellular route via the tight junctions. However, there are limited data demonstrating effects of dietary Ca concentration on abundance of genes related to transcellular and paracellular transport of Ca in the small intestine of pigs.

Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to test the hypotheses that a STTD Ca:STTD P ratio less than 1.40:1 maximizes growth performance of pigs from 11 to 25 kg and that increasing dietary Ca downregulates abundance of genes related to transcellular absorption of Ca and tight junction proteins in the small intestine.

 

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Nutritional composition, gross energy concentration, and in vitro digestibility of dry matter in 46 sources of bakery meals

Yanhong Liu, Rajesh Jha, and Hans H. Stein. 2018. Nutritional composition, gross energy concentration, and in vitro digestibility of dry matter in 46 sources of bakery meals. J. Anim. Sci. 2018.96:4685–4692. Link to full text.

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Effect of dietary calcium on growth performance of growing pigs

S. A. Lee, Vanessa Lagos, and Hans H. Stein. 2018. Effect of dietary calcium on growth performance of growing pigs. Pages 173 - 184. XXXIV Specialization Course FEDNA, Madrid, Nov. 22 - 23, 2018. Link to full text (.pdf)

 

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