Stein

Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, and energy by growing pigs, and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in yellow dent corn, hard red winter wheat, and sorghum may be influenced by extrusion

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A. Lee, Cassandra K. Jones, John K. Htoo, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of amino acids, fiber, and energy by growing pigs, and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in yellow dent corn, hard red winter wheat, and sorghum may be influenced by extrusion. Animal Feed Science and Technology 268 (2020) 114602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2020.114602.

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Effects of particle size reduction, pelleting, and extrusion on the nutritional value of ingredients and diets fed to pigs: A review

Lancheros, J. P., C. D. Espinosa, H. H. Stein. 2020. Effects of particle size reduction, pelleting, and extrusion on the nutritional value of ingredients and diets fed to pigs: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 268 (2020) 114603. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2020.114603.

Effect of formulating diets based on a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P and the inclusion of phytase on the calcium and phosphorus balance of growing pigs

Several experiments were conducted to estimate Ca digestibility in different feed ingredients in the presence or absence of microbial phytase to allow formulation of diets for pigs to be based on standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca instead of total Ca. Thus, 4 experiments aimed at determining Ca requirements expressed as a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P in pigs from 11 to 130 kg. A follow-up study was later conducted to validate those data and to evaluate the effect of using ratios that maximize growth performance on bone development because maximum bone ash requires more Ca than maximum growth performance. However, data indicate that STTD Ca to STTD P ratios to maximize Ca retention are greater than to maximize bone ash synthesis. The use of STTD Ca to STTD P ratios in diet formulation may result in a reduction in excess dietary Ca, which is beneficial because excess dietary Ca is detrimental to P digestibility and growth performance of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that formulating diets for growing pigs based on a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P instead of total Ca and STTD P does not decrease Ca retention, but increases P utilization.

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Pigs prefer diets containing corn to diets containing hybrid rye when given the choice, but growth performance is not reduced when hybrid rye replaces corn in diets for growing pigs

In many parts of the world, including the United States, corn is the primary energy source used in diets for pigs, but there are no published data comparing the growth performance of growing pigs fed diets in which hybrid rye replaces corn. Unfamiliarity with hybrid rye also makes some producers in the United States reluctant to try feeding hybrid rye to pigs, as there is a long-standing belief that rye is less palatable than other feed ingredients. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses that there is no difference in feed preference for diets containing either hybrid rye or corn as the exclusive cereal grain source, and that hybrid rye may replace a portion of corn in diets for growing pigs without adversely affecting growth. 

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Raw and roasted pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L.) are ‘good’ sources of protein based on their digestible indispensable amino acid score as determined in pigs

Bailey, Hannah M., and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Raw and roasted pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L.) are ‘good’ sources of protein based on their digestible indispensable amino acid score as determined in pigs. J Sci Food Agric 2020; 100: 3878–3885. Link to full text.

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Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids, acid hydrolyzed ether extract, and starch by young growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets

Rundle, Carly M., Valeria Artuso-Ponte, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids, acid hydrolyzed ether extract, and starch by young growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Transl. Anim. Sci. 2020.4:1-7. doi: 10.1093/tas/txaa054. Link to full text. 

Most meat products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores that are greater than 100, but processing may increase or reduce protein quality

Bailey, Hannah M., John K. Mathai, Eric P. Berg, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Most meat products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores that are greater than 100, but processing may increase or reduce protein quality. British Journal of Nutrition (2020), 124, 14–22. doi:10.1017/S0007114520000641. Link to full text.

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Impact of increasing the levels of insoluble fiber and on the method of diet formulation measures of energy and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs

Acosta, Jesus A., Hans H. Stein, and John F. Patience. 2020. Impact of increasing the levels of insoluble fiber and on the method of diet formulation measures of energy and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa130. Link to full text.

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Nutritional evaluation of different varieties of sorghum and the effects on nursery pig growth performance

Thomas, Lori L., Charmaine D. Espinosa, Robert D. Goodband, Hans H. Stein, Mike D. Tokach, Steve S. Dritz, Jason C. Woodworth, and Joel M. DeRouchey. 2020. Nutritional evaluation of different varieties of sorghum and the effects on nursery pig growth performance. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, 1–16.  doi:10.1093/jas/skaa120.

Effect of formulating diets based on a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P and the inclusion of phytase on growth performance, bone ash, plasma Ca and P, and carcass characteristics of pigs from 11 to 130 kg

Calcium requirements by pigs are expressed as total Ca because of a lack of data for the digestibility of Ca in feed ingredients, but it is believed that a ratio between standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca and STTD P is a more appropriate way to express requirements for Ca by pigs. Values for Ca digestibility in different Ca-containing feed ingredients were recently generated using diets without or with microbial phytase, which allowed for the formulation of diets based on STTD Ca values. A number of experiments were also conducted to determine STTD Ca to STTD P requirements to optimize growth performance and bone mineralization of pigs from 11 to 25 kg, 25 to 50 kg, 50 to 85 kg, and 100 to 130 kg. However, these experiments were performed independently and in experiments lasting only 3 to 5 weeks. Therefore, a follow-up experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the requirement for Ca expressed as a ratio between STTD Ca and STTD P obtained in short-term experiments may be applied to pigs fed diets without or with microbial phytase from 11 to 130 kg.

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Effect of replacing corn with bakery meal in diets for weanling pigs

Bakery meal consist of unsalable bread, breakfast cereals, cookies, pasta, and other foods that are no longer intended for human consumption. Bakery meal converts losses from the food industry into ingredients for the animal feed industry, thereby preventing food losses in the food chain. Wheat flour is the main ingredient in most bakery products, and this results in bakery meal containing high concentration of starch. Therefore, bakery meal is a potential sustainable feed ingredient that can be used in animal diets without competing with the food industry. However, research demonstrating the effect of bakery meal on growth performance for weanling pigs is limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that replacing corn with bakery meal will not influence growth performance of pigs.

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Hybrid rye instead of corn does not impede pig growth

McGhee, M. L., and H. H. Stein. 2020. Hybrid rye instead of corn does not impede pig growth. National Hog Farmer, Online edition, April 30, 2020. Link to full text. 

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Is the Phosphorus in Rye More Digestible?

Archs Toledo, J. L., Su A Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Is the phosphorus in rye more digestible? Pork Magazine, April 8, 2020. Link to full text.

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At least 3 days of adaptation are required before indigestible markers (chromium, titanium, and acid insoluble ash) are stabilized in the ileal digesta of 60-kg pigs, but values for amino acid digestibility are affected by the marker

Kim, Beob G., Su A Lee, Kyu R. Park, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. At least 3 days of adaptation are required before indigestible markers (chromium, titanium, and acid insoluble ash) are stabilized in the ileal digesta of 60-kg pigs, but values for amino acid digestibility are affected by the marker. Journal of Animal Science, 2020,  Vol. 98: No.

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Ileal digestibility and endogenous protein losses of milk replacers based on whey proteins alone or with an enzyme-treated soybean meal in young dairy calves

Ansia, I., H. H. Stein, D. A. Vermeire, C. Brøkner, and J. K. Drackley. 2020. Ileal digestibility and endogenous protein losses of milk replacers based on whey proteins alone or with an enzyme-treated soybean meal in young dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 103: 4390–4407.

Effects of dietary isoleucine and valine supplementation to excess or low leucine diets on nitrogen balance and metabolism of branched-chain amino acids in growing pigs

Leucine is a key regulator that stimulates catabolism of branched-chain AA (BCAA; i.e., Leu, Ile, and Val) in skeletal muscle and liver. If diets fed to pigs contain excess Leu, catabolism of all 3 BCAA may increase because of the stimulating effect of the Leu metabolite, α-keto isocaproate, on the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, which is responsible for degradation of the 3 branched-chain α-keto acids that originate from metabolism of the 3 BCAA. Serum Ile and Val concentrations were reduced by excess dietary Leu in growing pigs, and high dietary Leu reduces feed intake and growth performance in pigs, which may be a result of the imbalanced supply of BCAA that result from increased metabolism of Val and Ile. Recent data confirmed that excess dietary Leu reduced growth performance and tended to reduce protein synthesis, which is likely a result of reduced availability of Val and Ile.

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Effect of feed sweetener and feed flavor on growth performance of weanling pigs

At weaning, pigs have to cope with abrupt withdrawal of sow milk, and this often causes appetite suppression due to marked changes in diet form and composition. Feed flavor and sweetener are believed to increase feed palatability, and subsequently improve feed intake, average daily gain, and immune response of weanling pigs. However, data that confirm this hypothesis are limited. Therefore, it was the objective of this experiment to test the hypothesis that supplementation of feed flavor and feed sweetener in diets fed to weanling pigs improve growth performance.

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Effect of NexPro (high-protein corn) on growth performance of weanling pigs

NexPro is a high protein feed ingredient that is generated via downstream processing of co-products from the dry-grind ethanol industry. Results from digestibility experiments indicate that NexPro contribute considerable quantities of amino acids and energy to diets fed to pigs, but there are no data demonstrating effects on growth performance of including NexPro in diets for weanling pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that NexPro may replace other high-value protein sources in diets for weanling pigs without impacting pig growth performance.

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Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in L-threonine and L-valine biomass products fed to weanling pigs

Oliveira, M. S. F., C. D. Espinosa, J. D. Berrocoso, O. J. Rojas, J. K. Htood H. H. Stein. 2020. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in L-threonine and L-valine biomass products fed to weanling pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 263 (2020) 114463. Link to full text.

Effects of copper hydroxychloride and dietary fiber on intestinal permeability, growth performance, and blood characteristics of nursery pigs

Espinosa, C. D., R. S. Fry, M. E. Kocher, H. H. Stein. 2020. Effects of copper hydroxychloride and dietary fiber on intestinal permeability, growth performance, and blood characteristics of nursery pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 263 (2020) 114447. Link to full text.

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