Stein

Extrusion of soybean hulls does not increase digestibility of amino acids or concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A Lee, María R. C. de Godoy, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Extrusion of soybean hulls does not increase digestibility of amino acids or concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs. Transl. Anim. Sci. 2020.4:1-9. doi: 10.1093/tas/txaa169. Link to full text.

Conditioning and expansion increase nutritional value of soybean expellers

Soybean expellers contain trypsin inhibitors, which negatively affect nutrient digestibility, feed efficiency, and health status of animals. Therefore, heat treatment is needed to inactivate trypsin inhibitors to improve nutrient digestibility in soybean expellers. Different types and degrees of processing conditions may influence digestibility of energy and amino acids (AA) in soybean expellers, but there is a lack of data demonstrating how long heat treatment is needed if soybean expellers are expander processed after hydrothermical conditioning. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA, as well as values for digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in soybean expellers increase the longer heat is applied to the expellers.

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Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in six sources of partially de-hulled sunflower meal and one source of sunflower expellers from Ukraine, Hungary, Italy, and the U.S. when fed to growing pigs

Sunflower meal, which is the co-product derived from sunflower seeds after oil extraction, has a high concentration of digestible amino acids (AA) and fiber. The nutritive value and quality of sunflower meal is partially dependent on the degree of dehulling, the variety of the sunflower, and the oil extraction process. Sunflower seeds are initially de-hulled and then partially de-oiled using a mechanial prepress procedure. A second de-oiling procedure is performed using a solvent extraction procedure or by usign a second mechanical expelling procedure. The prepress-solvent extraction procedure results in production of sunflower oil and sunflower meal that contains 1 to 3% oil, whereas the double-press procedure results in production of sunflower oil and a sunflower product that contains 5 to 10% residual oil and commonly is referred to as sunflower expellers. Some of the hulls may be added back to the sunflower meal or the sunflower expellers resulting in differences in concentrations of total dietary fiber among sources.

The apparent ileal digestibility and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and AA in individual sources of partially de-hulled sunflower meal fed to pigs have been reported. However, there are no comparative values for the SID of AA in sunflower meal produced in different parts of the world, and it is not known if the SID of AA in sunflower meal are different from those in sunflower expellers. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the SID of CP and AA in different sources of sunflower meal and sunflower expellers obtained from different countries.

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Effect of torula yeast on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, and blood characteristics in weanling pigs

Espinosa, Charmaine D., L. Vanessa Lagos, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effect of torula yeast on growth performance, diarrhea incidence, and blood characteristics in weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 10, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa307. Link to full text.
 

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Swine Nutrition

Stein, H. H. 2020. Swine Nutrition. Feedstuffs Reference Issue & Nutritional Guide. P. 35-40. Link to full text

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Nutrition Know-How: High-Shear Dry Soybean Expellers

Rodriguez, D. A., Su A Lee, and H. H. Stein. 2020. Nutrition Know-How: High-Shear Dry Soybean Expellers. Pork Magazine, On-line edition, Aug. 2020. Link to full text.

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Short communication: A pilot study to describe duodenal and ileal flows of nutrients and to estimate small intestine endogenous protein losses in weaned calves

Ansia, I., H. H. Stein, C. Brøkner, and J. K. Drackley. 2020. Short communication: A pilot study to describe duodenal and ileal flows of nutrients and to estimate small intestine endogenous protein losses in weaned calves. J. Dairy Sci. 103:9102–9109. doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18281.

Digestibility of amino acids, but not fiber, fat, or energy, is greater in cold-fermented, low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) compared with conventional DDGS fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of amino acids, but not fiber, fat, or energy, is greater in cold-fermented, low-oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) compared with conventional DDGS fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 10, 1–8. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa297.

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Intrinsic phytase in hybrid rye increases the digestibility of phosphorus in corn and soybean meal in diets fed to growing pigs

Archs Toledo, Joan L., Su A Lee, Molly L. McGhee, Gonzalo G. Mateos, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Intrinsic phytase in hybrid rye increases the digestibility of phosphorus in corn and soybean meal in diets fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 10, 1–6. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa295. Link to full text.

Effects of adding HCl to collection bags or collection pitchers on amino acid digestibility in corn, soybean meal, or wheat middlings fed to growing pigs

In most AA digestibility experiments collection bags are changed at least every 30 min and the collected ileal digesta are stored at –20 °C to prevent microbial degradation of proteins. Other attempts to reduce microbial activity in digesta include adding acids to collection bags to reduce the pH in ileal digesta. Acids may also be added to collection pitchers. However, in some experiments, no attempt to reduce pH is made because it is assumed that the rapid reduction in temperature after collection is sufficient to prevent microbial degradation of proteins.

To our knowledge, there is, however, no information about the necessity of adding acids to collected digesta and it is not known if values for apparent ileal digestibility (AID), basal endogenous losses of AA, or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA are influenced by addition of acids to digesta. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the null-hypothesis that values for AID, basal endogenous losses, and SID of AA are not influenced by addition of acids to ileal digesta collection bags or to collection pitchers.

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Protein quality in ready-to-use supplementary foods for moderate wasting

Roediger, Rebecca, Hans-Henrik Stein, Meghan Callaghan-Gillespie, Jeffrey Kahn Blackman, Kristin Kohlmann, Kenneth Maleta, Mark Manary. 2020. Protein quality in ready-to-use supplementary foods for moderate wasting. Matern Child Nutr. 2020;e13019. doi.org/10.1111/mcn.13019. Link to the full text.

The direct and difference procedures result in similar estimates for amino acid digestibility in feed ingredients fed to growing pigs

Oliveira, Maryane S. F., John K. Htoo, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. The direct and difference procedures result in similar estimates for amino acid digestibility in feed ingredients fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 8, 1–8. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa225. Link to full text.

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Values for digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) determined in pigs for breakfast cereals and milk are additive in combined breakfast cereal-milk meals

Breakfast cereals are usually consumed with milk as a breakfast meal. To meet requirements for amino acids (AA), higher quality proteins are needed to complement the protein in cereals to provide a meal that is adequate in all indispensable AA. The digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) method used to determine protein quality allows for calculation of the protein value of individual ingredients and mixed meals consisting of several proteins. Values for DIAAS are based on values for apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA that are corrected for the basal endogenous loss of each individual AA, resulting in values defined as standardized ileal digestibility (SID). Values for SID of AA are additive in mixed meals because these values are independent of basal endogenous losses. Consequently, it is expected that DIAAS obtained for individual food ingredients are additive in a mixed meal, but data to demonstrate this have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that AA in milk complement AA in breakfast cereals to provide a balanced meal and that DIAAS in individual foods are additive in a combined meal.  

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Determination of true ileal amino acid digestibility in the growing pig for calculation of digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS)

Hodgkinson, Suzanne M., Hans H. Stein, Sonja de Vries, Wouter H. Hendriks, and Paul J. Moughan. 2020. Determination of true ileal amino acid digestibility in the growing pig for calculation of digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS). The Journal of Nutrition. First published online, 2020. doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa210.

Digestibility of amino acids and concentrations of metabolizable energy and net energy are greater in high-shear dry soybean expellers than in soybean meal when fed to growing pigs

Rodriguez, Diego A., Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Digestibility of amino acids and concentrations of metabolizable energy and net energy are greater in high-shear dry soybean expellers than in soybean meal when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–8.

doi:10.1093/jas/skaa215. Link to full text.

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Excessive heating of 00-rapeseed meal reduces not only amino acid digestibility but also metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs

Oliveira, Maryane S. F., Markus K. Wiltafsky-Martin, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Excessive heating of 00-rapeseed meal reduces not only amino acid digestibility but also metabolizable energy when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa219. Link to full text.

The apparent ileal digestibility and the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates and energy in hybrid rye are different from some other cereal grains when fed to growing pigs

McGhee, Molly L., and Hans. H. Stein. 2020. The apparent ileal digestibility and the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates and energy in hybrid rye are different from some other cereal grains when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–10. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa218. Link to full text.

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Reduce crude protein to improve fecal consistency, intestine morphology

Limbach, Joseph R., Charmaine D. Espinosa, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Reduce crude protein to improve fecal consistency, intestine morphology. National Hog Farmer, Online edition, July 30, 2020. Link to full text.

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Effects of concentration of calcium and phosphorus and 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) on digestibility and retention of calcium and phosphorus and concentration of digestible energy in diets fed to sows in late-gestation

Absorption of Ca and P by active transport in the small intestine is regulated by calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) and the hormones calcitonin and PTH. One-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1-α-OH-D3) is an active vitamin D3 analog that does not require the second hydroxylation step for vitamin D3 to be active. It is possible that supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 may increase absorption of Ca and P.

The requirement for Ca and P by gestating sows increases in late gestation compared with early- and mid-gestation because of increased needs by the developing fetuses. It is also possible that dietary concentrations of Ca and P affect the rate of absorption of Ca and P in sows but data to demonstrate this have not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the Ca and P concentrations in diets fed to gestating sows in late gestation and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 affect apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and retention of Ca and P as well as the ATTD of GE and concentration of DE in diets. The second hypothesis was that there is an interaction between dietary Ca and P concentrations and supplementation of 1-α-OH-D3 in diets fed to gestating sows.

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A new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater digestibility of amino acids and energy, but less digestibility of phosphorus, than de-oiled DDGS when fed to growing pigs

Cristobal, Minoy, Jessica P. Acosta, Su A Lee, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. A new source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has greater digestibility of amino acids and energy, but less digestibility of phosphorus, than de-oiled DDGS when fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2020, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1–9. doi:10.1093/jas/skaa200.

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