Stein

Hybrid Rye May Replace Corn in Diets for Nursery Pigs Without Negatively Affecting Average Daily Gain, but gain:feed May Be Reduced

McGhee, M. L., and H. H. Stein. 2021. Hybrid Rye May Replace Corn in Diets for Nursery Pigs Without Negatively Affecting Average Daily Gain, but gain:feed May Be Reduced. J. Anim. Sci. 99(Suppl. 1): 51–52. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.087. Link to Abstract.

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The Ash in Metacarpals, Metatarsals, and Tibia Is Better Correlated with Total Body Bone Ash Than the Ash in Other Bones of Growing Pigs

Lee, Su A., M. R. Bedford, and H. H. Stein. 2021. The Ash in Metacarpals, Metatarsals, and Tibia Is Better Correlated with Total Body Bone Ash Than the Ash in Other Bones of Growing Pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 99(Suppl. 1): 46–47. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab054.080. (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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Hybrid rye may replace corn in diets for growing-finishing pigs without influencing most carcass traits, but feed intake may be reduced at high inclusion rates

Hybrid rye may replace a portion of barley or wheat in diets for growing and finishing pigs with minimal impact on growth performance or carcass characteristics, but at very high inclusion rates in finishing diets, feed intake may be reduced if hybrid rye replaces wheat. However, limited published data exist for effects of feeding hybrid rye to growing-finishing pigs in place of corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that average daily gain (ADG) and carcass characteristics will not differ when hybrid rye partially replaces corn in diets for growing-finishing pigs.

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Digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in a cheese co-product, fish meal, and enzyme treated soybean meal fed to weanling pigs

Dried whey is often used as a source of lactose in diets for weanling pigs. Whey is a co-product from dairy processing plants that is generated after fat and protein in milk has been used to produce cheese. Whey powder is therefore, low in protein because the majority of the milk protein ends up in the cheese during processing. However, some of the cheese that is produced may not be suitable for human consumption, but can instead be used as a feed ingredient for pigs after being blended with other ingredients to improve flowability and handling.  One of the cheese co-products that is currently being marketed contains 40 to 50% crude protein and has a high digestibility of amino acids. There is, however, limited information about the energy value of cheese co-products fed to pigs although it is expected that because of the high concentration of fat in cheese, the energy value will also be high. Therefore, it was the objective of this experiment to test the hypothesis that digestibility of energy and concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in a cheese co-product is greater than that in fish meal and enzyme treated soybean meal when fed to weanling pigs.

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Formulating diets based on digestible calcium instead of total calcium does not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics, but microbial phytase ameliorates bone resorption caused by low calcium in diets fed to pigs from 11 to 130 kg

Lagos, L. Vanessa, Su A Lee, Mike R. Bedford, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Formulating diets based on digestible calcium instead of total calcium does not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics, but microbial phytase ameliorates bone resorption caused by low calcium in diets fed to pigs from 11 to 130 kg. Journal of Animal Science, 2021, Vol. 99, No. 3, 1–11. doi:10.1093/jas/skab057.

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Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previously estimated

Lee, Su A, D. A. Rodriguez, and H. H. Stein. 2021. Net energy of U.S. soybean meal greater than previouly estimated. National Hog Farmer, On-line edition, March, 2021. Link to full text.

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Nutrient digestibility and endogenous protein losses in the foregut and small intestine of weaned dairy calves fed calf starters with conventional or enzyme-treated soybean meal

Ansia, I., H. H. Stein, C. Brøkner, C. A. Hayes, and J. K. Drackley. 2021. Nutrient digestibility and endogenous protein losses in the foregut and small intestine of weaned dairy calves fed calf starters with conventional or enzyme-treated soybean meal. J. Dairy Sci. 104:2979–2995. doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18776.

Effect of reducing the concentration of limestone and monocalcium phosphate in diets without or with microbial phytase on gastric pH, fecal score, growth performance, and bone ash of weanling pigs

Weanling pigs have reduced secretion of HCl in the stomach needed for appropriate protein digestion. Therefore, acidifiers are sometimes used in weaning diets as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters because these products may create a favorable environment in the stomach for proper pepsin activity. However, the presence of limestone and monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in phase 1 diets, which have a high buffer capacity, may contribute to the inability for pigs to secrete enough HCl in the stomach, and lowering the inclusion level of these ingredients in starter diets may be beneficial to young pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that reducing the amount of limestone and MCP in diets for weanling pigs, by lowering the concentration of dietary Ca and P and(or) by including microbial phytase in the diet, will reduce stomach pH and fecal score and therefore improve growth performance of pigs.

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Digestibility of P and concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in high-oil corn fed to growing pigs

Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and phosphorus than conventional corn. Because of the increased oil, it is possible that high-oil corn contains more digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) than conventional hybrids, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally verified. Inclusion of microbial phytase in diets for pigs usually improves digestibility of P because phytase hydrolyzes the ester bond that binds P to the phytate molecule in corn. However, there are at this point no data for effects of adding phytase to diets containing high-oil corn and no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, as well as concentrations of DE and ME in high-oil corn are greater than in conventional corn. The second hypothesis was that inclusion of microbial phytase to diets improves the STTD of P in corn sources.

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Determination of net energy in U.S. soybean meal fed to group-housed growing pigs

Soybean meal (SBM) is the major source of amino acids in diets for swine throughout the world. However, in addition to providing indispensable amino acids to diets, SBM also provides energy to the diets. Diets are often formulated based on the net energy (NE) in each individual ingredient using a linear programming computer software. Therefore, the NE for each ingredient is important for the value the ingredient is assigned in the formulation. However, the NE for SBM that is used by most feed formulators was generated many years ago, but results of recent research indicate that current U.S. SBM may provide more NE than previously estimated, which potentially results in an increased estimation of the value of SBM in diets for pigs. There is, therefore, a need for confirming or updating the NE value for SBM. As a consequence, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the NE in U.S. SBM fed to modern genotypes of pigs is greater than the value that is currently used in feed formulation.

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Effect of sample preparation method and drying method on the concentration of energy in urine and the concentration of metabolizable energy in diets fed to pigs

To obtain accurate values for metabolizable energy (ME) in diets and ingredients, an accurate estimation of gross energy (GE) in urine is required. Urine samples are often prepared following the freeze-dried cotton-plastic bag method and GE is determined by the ignition of the sample in a bomb calorimeter. However, the concentration of GE in urine can also be determined by dripping urine on a cellulose pellet, which can then be ignited in a bomb calorimeter. Alternatively, energy in urine can be calculated from the concentration of N in urine assuming that all energy in urine originates from N. The latter 2 methods may be less expensive and less time consuming than using the freeze-dried cotton-plastic bag method. Likewise, oven drying instead of freeze drying of samples may reduce time and cost of the drying procedure. However, to our knowledge, no data comparing values for GE in urine and ME in diets among different sample preparation and drying methods are available. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are no differences in GE of urine or ME values of diets among sample preparation methods (freeze-dried cotton-plastic bag, undried cellulose pellet, or N value method). The second hypothesis was that drying method (freeze drying or oven drying) of cotton-plastic bag urine samples from pigs do not influence analyzed the GE in urine or calculated ME in diets.

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Digestibility and metabolism of copper in diets for pigs and influence of dietary copper on growth performance, intestinal health, and overall immune status: a review

Espinosa, Charmaine D., and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Digestibility and metabolism of copper in diets for pigs and influence of dietary copper on growth performance, intestinal health, and overall immune status: a review. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology 12: 13. doi.org/10.1186/s40104-020-00533-3. Link to full text.

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Copper hydroxychloride improves gain to feed ratio in pigs, but this is not due to improved true total tract digestibility of acid hydrolyzed ether extract

Espinosa C. D., R. S. Fry, J. L. Usry, H. H. Stein. 2021. Copper hydroxychloride improves gain to feed ratio in pigs, but this is not due to improved true total tract digestibility of acid hydrolyzed ether extract. Animal Feed Science and Technology 274: 114839. doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2021.114839  Link to full text.

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Values for Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) Determined in Pigs Are Greater for Milk Than for Breakfast Cereals, but DIAAS Values for Individual Ingredients Are Additive in Combined Meals

Fanelli, Natalia S., Hannah M. Bailey, Lía V. Guardiola, and Hans H. Stein. 2021. Values for Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) Determined in Pigs Are Greater for Milk Than for Breakfast Cereals, but DIAAS Values for Individual Ingredients Are Additive in Combined Meals. The Journal of Nutrition, first published online, 2021. doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa398.

Digestibility of amino acids in high-oil corn product fed to growing pigs

Corn is a cereal grain that is commonly used as a feed ingredient for swine diets due to its excellent palatability, and it can easily be grown on a wide range of environmental conditions. Conventional breeding of corn has generated a new variety (i.e., high-oil corn; Byron Seeds LLC, Rockville, IN), which is believed to contain more oil and crude protein (CP) than conventional corn. It is, therefore, possible that this high-oil corn may be comparable to other cereal grains and may serve as alternative to corn for pigs. However, there are at this point no data to demonstrate the nutritional value of high-oil corn. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in high-oil corn is greater than in conventional corn.

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Amino acid digestibility in cheese co-product, in fish meal, and in HP 300 fed to weanling pigs

Whey, which is a co-product from dairy processing plants that extract fat and protein from milk to make cheese has been used in diets fed to weanling pigs as a source of lactose. Whey powder does not contain much protein because the majority of the milk protein ends up in the cheese during processing. However, cheese co-products, which contain 40 to 50% crude protein may be used in the feeding of pigs but there is limited information about the nutritional value of cheese co-products fed to pigs. Therefore, it was the objective of this experiment to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) by weanling pigs in a cheese co-product and compare values to those obtained in fish meal and in a source of enzyme treated soybean meal (HP 300).

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Dietary Organic Acids Modulate Gut Microbiota and Improve Growth Performance of Nursery Pigs

Wei, Xiaoyuan , Kristopher A. Bottoms, Hans H. Stein, Laia Blavi, Casey L. Bradley, Jon Bergstrom, Joshua Knapp, Robert Story, Charles Maxwell, Tsungcheng Tsai, and Jiangchao Zhao. 2021. Dietary Organic Acids Modulate Gut Microbiota and Improve Growth Performance of Nursery Pigs. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 110. doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010110.

Review of current data for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) determined for human foods

Bailey, H. M., and H. H. Stein. 2020. Review of current data for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) determined for human foods. J. American Oil Chemists’ Society. 97(Suppl.1): 16. doi:10.1002/aocs.12427. Link to the abstract.

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Effects of a novel E. coli phytase expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth, bone mineralization, and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed corn–soybean meal diets

Ren, Ping, Laia Blavi, Caroline González-Vega, Yanhong Liu, Deana Hancock, Mercedes Vazquez-Añón, Ferdinando N. Almeida, and Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects of a novel E. coli phytase expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth, bone mineralization, and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed corn–soybean meal diets. Transl. Anim. Sci.

Effects of dietary crude protein level on growth performance, fecal score, gastrointestinal pH, and blood characteristics in weanling pigs fed antibiotic-free diets

Limbach, Joseph R., Estefania Pérez Calvo, Hans H. Stein. 2020. Effects of dietary crude protein level on growth performance, fecal score, gastrointestinal pH, and blood characteristics in weanling pigs fed antibiotic-free diets. J. Anim. Sci. 98(Suppl. 3): 91. doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa054.159 (Abstr.). Link to abstract.

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